Advertisement

Whose Empowerment? Gender Quota Reform Mechanisms and De-democratization in Morocco

  • Hanane Darhour
Chapter
Part of the Gender and Politics book series (GAP)

Abstract

The rapid expansion of electoral gender quotas in the past decades has been met with considerable scholarly attention. Yet, there has been little empirical work examining the mechanisms used to design and reform electoral gender quotas over time and evaluate their outcomes on women’s empowerment and democratization. Drawing on policy tracing and in-depth interviews conducted in-between 2003 and 2017 with political activists, this chapter provides a closer look at the very special reserved seats system adopted in the context of democratization and the strengthening of women’s rights in Morocco from 2002 to 2016. Despite being numerically effective in fielding 21% of women into the parliament in 2016, I argue that the National List provision generated side effects on women’s entitlement and legitimacy and thereby created the fallacy of a democratic and gender-inclusive parliament referred to here as de-democratization. The chapter concludes that the political legitimacy of gender quotas has been undermined by a deliberate protective strategy of the political patronage system which causes the creeping down of de-democratization.

Keywords

Gender quota Reserved seats Quota provisions Empowerment De-democratization 

References

  1. Arendt, C. M. (2018). From critical mass to critical leaders: Unpacking the political conditions behind gender quotas in Africa. Politics & Gender, 14(3), 295–322.Google Scholar
  2. Belarbi, A. (2012). Egalité-Parité: Histoire Inachevé. Casablanca: Editions Le Fennec.Google Scholar
  3. Benabdellah, M. A. (2001). Propos sur l’évolution constitutionnelle au Maroc [Considerations on the Constitutional Evolution of Morocco]. https://fr.scribd.com/document/348181509/Evolution-Constitutionnelle.
  4. Bennani, C. M. (2008). Hommes d’affaires versus profs de fac. La notabilisation parlementaire d’un parti de militants au Maroc. Revue internationale de politique compare ́e, 15(2): 205–219.Google Scholar
  5. Bjarnegard, E., & Zetterberg, P. (2011). Removing quotas, maintaining representation: Overcoming gender inequalities in political party recruitment. Representation, 47(2), 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brand, L. (1998). Women, the state, and political liberalization. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Burnet, J. E. (2011). Women have found respect: Gender quotas, symbolic representation and female empowerment in Rwanda (Paper 3). Anthropology Faculty Publications. http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/anthro_facpub/3.
  8. Bush, S. (2015). Forms of international pressure and the Middle East. Project on Middle East Political Science. http://pomeps.org/2015/08/21/forms-of-international-pressure-and-the-middle-east/.
  9. Dahlerup, D. (Ed.). (2006). Women, quotas and politics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Dahlerup, D. (2018a). Has democracy failed women? Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dahlerup, D. (2018b). Gender equality as a closed case: A survey among the members of the 2015 Danish parliament. Scandinavian Political Studies, 41(2), 188–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dahlerup, D., & Freidenvall, L. (2005). Quotas as a “fast track” to equal representation for women: Why Scandinavia is no longer the model. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7(1), 26–48.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1461674042000324673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalmasso, E., & Cavatorta, F. (2010). Reforming the family code in Tunisia and Morocco: The struggle between religion, globalisation and democracy. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions Journal, 11(2), 213–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daoud, Z. (1993). Feminisme et Politique au Maghreb: Septs Décennies de Lutte. Casablanca: Eddif.Google Scholar
  15. Darhour, H., & Dahlerup, D. (2013). Sustainable representation of women through gender quotas: A decade’s experience in Morocco. Women’s Studies International Forum, 41(2), 132–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. El Moussalli, J. (2011). The feminist movement in modern Morocco: Directions and issues (in Arabic). Rabat: Publications of the Moroccan Centre for Studies and Modern Research and Top Press.Google Scholar
  17. Ennaji, M. (Ed.). (2007). Société Civile, Genre et Développement. Fès: Publications de l’Université de Fès.Google Scholar
  18. Franceschet, S. (2011). Gendered institutions and women’s substantive representation: Female legislators in Argentina and Chile. In M. Krook & F. Mackay (Eds.), Gender, politics and institutions. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Franceschet, S., & Piscopo, J. M. (2008). Gender quotas and women’s substantive representation: Lessons from Argentina. Politics and Gender, 4(3), 393–425.Google Scholar
  20. Freedom House. (2018). Democracy in crisis: Freedom in the world 2018. https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FH_FITW_Report_2018_Final_SinglePage.pdf.
  21. Freidenvall, L., & Krook, M. L. (2011). Discursive strategies for institutional reform: Gender quotas in Sweden and France. In M. L. Krook & F. Mackay (Eds.), Gender, politics and institutions. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Goetz, A. M. (2003). The problem with patronage: Constraints on women’s political effectiveness in Uganda. In A. M. Goetz & S. Hassim (Eds.), No shortcuts to power: African women in politics and policy making (pp. 110–139). New York: Zed.Google Scholar
  23. Goetz, A. M., & Hassim, S. (Eds.). (2003). No shortcuts to power: African women in politics and policy making. Cape Town: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  24. Goulding, K. (2009). Unjustifiable means to unjustifiable ends: Delegitimizing parliamentary gender quotas in Tunisia. Al-Raida, 126–127, 71–77.Google Scholar
  25. Grajzl, V. D. and Obasanjo, I. (2019). Do parliamentary gender quotas decrease gender inequality? The case of African countries. Constitutional Political Economy.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10602-018-09272-0.
  26. Htun, M. (2003). Sex and the State: Abortion, divorce, and the family under Latin American dictatorships and democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jossour Forum des Femmes Marocaines. (2017). Evaluation des mécanismes de promotion de la représentation politique des femmes au Maroc. Fondation Friedrich Ebert.Google Scholar
  28. Karpowitz, C. F., Mendelberg, T., & Shaker, L. (2012). Gender inequality in deliberative participation. American Political Science Review, 106(3), 533–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kenny, M. (2013). Gender and political recruitment: Theorizing institutional change. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Krook, M. L. (2009). Quotas for women in politics: Candidate selection reform worldwide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kulawik, T. (2009). Staking the frame of a feminist discursive institutionalism. Politics and Gender, 5(2), 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority right. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lloren, A. (2014). Gender quotas in Morocco: Lessons for women’s descriptive and symbolic representation. Representation, 50(4).  https://doi.org/10.1080/00344893.2014.979224.
  34. Longwe, S. H. (2000). Towards realistic strategies for women’s political empowerment in Africa. Gender and Development, 8(3), 24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lovenduski, J. (1998). Gendering research in political science. Annual Review of Political Science, 1, 333–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mansbridge, J. (2003). Rethinking representation. American Political Science Review, 97(4), 515–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meier, P., & Lombardo, E. (2010). Towards a new theory on the symbolic representation of women. Paper presented to APSA Annual meeting, Washington, DC, September.Google Scholar
  38. Nanivadekar, M. (2006). Are quotas a good idea? The Indian experience with reserved seats for women. Politics and Gender, 2(1), 119–128.Google Scholar
  39. Norris, P. (2006). Fast track strategies for women’s representation in Iraq and Afghanistan: Choices and consequences. 102nd American Political Science Association Annual Meeting APSA 2006.Google Scholar
  40. Pitkin, H. F. (1967). The concept of representation. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  41. Sadiqi, F., & Ennaji, M. (2011). Women in the Middle East and North Africa: Agents of change. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Sater, J. N. (2007). Changing politics from below? Women parliamentarians in Morocco. Democratization, 14(4), 723–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sater, J. N. (2012). Reserved seats, patriarchy, and patronage in Morocco. In S. Franceschet, M. L. Krook, & J. M. Piscopo (Eds.), Impact of gender quotas. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Sater, J. N. (2017). Patronage and democratic citizenship in Morocco. In R. Meijer & N. Butenschøn (Eds.), The crisis of citizenship in the Arab world. Brill: Leiden.Google Scholar
  45. Shalaby, M. (2016). Women’s political representation and authoritarianism in the Arab World. In POMEPS women and gender in Middle East politics. https://pomeps.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/POMEPS_Studies_19_Gender_Web.pdf.
  46. Touhtou, R. (2012). Debating civil society in Morocco: Dynamics of gender, development and social capital. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Tripp, A. M., & Kang, A. (2008). The global impact of quotas: On the fast track to increased female legislative representation. Faculty Publications: Political Science, 41. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/poliscifacpub/41.
  48. Waylen, G. (2009). What can historical institutionalism offer feminist institutionalists? Politics and Gender, 5(2), 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waylen, G. (2012). Understanding institutional change: A gender perspective. Paper presented to CPP Seminar, Manchester, November.Google Scholar
  50. Welborne, B. C. (2010). The strategic use of gender quotas in the Arab World. Arlington: IFES. http://iknowpolitics.org/en/learn[…….]egic-use-gender-quotas-arab-world.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanane Darhour
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Ibn Zohr UniversityAit MelloulMorocco

Personalised recommendations