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Lipidomics of Adipogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Kambiz Gilany
  • Moloud Payab
  • Parisa Goodarzi
  • Akram Tayanloo-Beik
  • Sepideh Alavi-Moghadam
  • Maryamossadat Mousavi
  • Babak Arjmand
  • Tannaz Safaralizadeh
  • Mina Abedi
  • Maryam Arabi
  • Hamid Reza Aghayan
  • Bagher Larijani
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells are defined as multipotent cells which have the ability to differentiate into various types of cell. Under the adipogenic stimuli, mesenchymal stem cells possess the ability to differentiate into adipocytes through adipogenesis processes. Adipogenesis is defined as the process of pre-adipocyte differentiation to mature adipocytes. Adipocytes are a type of cells with the ability to maintain energy balance through storage excess energy. However, several abnormal conditions including various types of disease can result from energy imbalance. Accordingly, obesity as a worldwide problem is one of the prevalent outcomes of increasing fat mass and there is a global effort to combat it. Accumulation of excess fat in adipocytes leads to adipocyte hypertrophy. Consequently, hypertrophic adipocyte can secrete several endocrine factors that induce hyperplasia (one of the major causes of obesity) and signal proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells undergoes different signaling pathways with various regulatory factors, while elucidation of these controllers can help scientists to develop more effective treatments for obesity and other related diseases. Therein, lipids have been presented as pivotal mediators of cellular processes and could induce several signaling pathways. Additionally, lipids are fundamental metabolites which use as cellular biomarkers to indicate different biological states and cellular activity. Total content of lipids in cells is known as lipidome. Any slight changes in the lipidome reflect different cellular changes. Tracking and comparing these changes between different stages of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation can provide identification of essential metabolic pathways involved in adipogenesis. In this context, lipidomics has been introduced as an emerging field of stem cell and regenerative medicine. Through the large-scale analysis of lipids, lipidomics provides more efficient methods to the investigation of adipocytes, and also prediction of the prognosis of obesity and its prevention and treatment.

Keywords

Biomarkers Lipids Lipidomics Mesenchymal stem cell Obesity 

Abbreviations

BAT

Brown adipose tissue

BMI

Body mass index

C/EBPα

CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins

C1

Carbon 1

C2

Carbon 2

C3

Carbon 3

CKI

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors

CoA

Coenzyme A

Dex

Dexamethasone

FA

Fatty acids

GD

Growth arrest

GL

Glycerolipids

hMSCs

Human mesenchymal stem cells

IBMX

Isobutylmethylxanthine

IBMX

Isobutyl-methylxanthine

IL6

Interleukin 6

ISCT

International Society for Cell Therapy

LD

Lipid droplets

MCE

Clonal expansion

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cells

MVA

Mevalonic acid

PG

Prostaglandins

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

PPARϒ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ϒ

PSCs

Pluripotent stem cells

SREBP

Sterol regulatory element binding protein

TAG

Triacylglycerol

TG

Triglycerides

TGF-β3

Transforming growth factor-β3

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor α

WAT

White adipose tissue

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kambiz Gilany
    • 1
    • 2
  • Moloud Payab
    • 3
  • Parisa Goodarzi
    • 4
  • Akram Tayanloo-Beik
    • 5
  • Sepideh Alavi-Moghadam
    • 5
  • Maryamossadat Mousavi
    • 6
  • Babak Arjmand
    • 5
    • 6
  • Tannaz Safaralizadeh
    • 5
  • Mina Abedi
    • 6
  • Maryam Arabi
    • 6
  • Hamid Reza Aghayan
    • 5
  • Bagher Larijani
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Integrative Oncology Department, Breast Cancer Research CenterMotamed Cancer Institute, ACECRTehranIran
  3. 3.Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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