Exploring EKCs in Urban Water and Energy Use Patterns and Its Interconnections: A Case Study in Southern Spain

  • Alfonso ExpósitoEmail author
  • María del P. Pablo-Romero
  • Antonio Sánchez-Braza
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


This study aims to explore the existence of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) in urban water and energy use patterns at regional scale based on a wide data set of 336 municipalities in the Guadalquivir River Basin. A systematic analysis of the relationships between urban water-energy use patterns and indicators of economic development (i.e. income and employment) is carried out. Additionally, this study takes into account other determinants that might also have an impact on the urban use of these resources, such as population density, age and educational level. Results contribute to a better understanding of the socio-economic factors driving urban demands for energy and water, thus also offering policy guidelines to guarantee the sustainable management of both resources.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfonso Expósito
    • 1
    Email author
  • María del P. Pablo-Romero
    • 1
  • Antonio Sánchez-Braza
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economic Analysis and Political EconomyUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain

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