The Future: Intersex Shaping Inclusive Laws

  • Nikoletta Pikramenou


After having examined the situation of intersex rights in both regional and international levels, it can be observed that jurisdictions are still “struggling” to accommodate intersex. Intersex rights are explicitly protected only in few countries while there is a global trend for implicit protection of intersex. According to the findings of this research, this tendency can be justified if we consider the legal evolution of “sex” and “gender”. Intersex movements have been advocating for intersex rights only since the 1990s and therefore the legislator, confronted with a relatively new reality, seems “hesitant” to challenge the male/female binary as it is well-founded in both societies and the law. “Sexual orientation” and “gender identity” issues were addressed first as they became visible prior to issues surrounding “intersex” and/or “sex characteristics” and in the absence of explicit and comprehensive intersex rights’ frameworks, intersex people benefit from frameworks on SOGI rights even though they do not address their specific needs. A typical example is legal recognition where the developments on the field of “gender identity” have been major during the previous years and many jurisdictions around the globe tend to apply existing “gender identity” frameworks on intersex to protect their rights while intersex do not identify with the binary as trans individuals do. Under the same token, legal frameworks on “sexual orientation” have impacted intersex as well and especially their right to marry and found a family.



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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikoletta Pikramenou
    • 1
  1. 1.AthensGreece

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