Advertisement

Organic Salmon in Norway

  • Kamilla Knutsen SteinnesEmail author
  • Virginie Amilien
  • Gunnar Vittersø
Chapter

Abstract

Norwegian salmon industry has a rich historical tradition, which today represents a successful global export market. Starting in 1990, farmers and producers began the production of organic salmon. It was implemented with a heavy focus on environmental sustainability. There are currently two organically certified salmon producers in Norway who are subject to regulations which are intended to limit – or ideally to entirely avoid – environmental harm. In particular, organic certification requires that salmon have larger cages and are fed with organic fish trimmings. Additionally, organic farms must comply with different regulations for vaccination and water oxygen to conventional farms. The resulting organic product is natural in color and has a different structure of omega 3-fat compared to the conventional reference product. The value chain of organic salmon in Norway is highly regulated and is characterized by strong governance at farm level. Furthermore, the farming, processing, and retailing of this supply chain is well integrated as these three levels often overlap. Comparing organic and conventional salmon production across several indicators of economic, social, and environmental sustainability, this chapter offers some insight into both supply chains. Organic salmon performs slightly better in terms of economic sustainability (mostly driven by consumer prices and profitability) and environmental sustainability as a whole. Results for social sustainability are mixed although in absolute terms, both supply chains are fairly sustainable in terms of equal gender opportunities.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all key stakeholders who provided essential information about organically farmed salmon in Norway. The authors would particularly like to thank Jan-Widar Finden, Bernt Aarset, Martin Øvrebø, Roy Alapnes, and Tor Egil Skaar – for providing helpful insight into the historical background of salmon farming, organic certification, and details about the entire value chain of organically farmed salmon in Norway.

References

  1. Aarset, B., & Borgen, S. O. (2015). The battle of the eyed egg: Critical junctures and the control of genes in Norwegian salmon farming. Aquaculture, 445, 70–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.04.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amilien, V. (2000). Matkulturens plass i norsk reiselivsbransje [The role of food culture in tourism in Norway] (Arbeidsnotat [working paper] nr. 18 – 2000), Lysaker, Statens Institutt for Forbruksforskning.Google Scholar
  3. Amilien, V., Schjøll, A., & Vramo, L. M. (2008). Forbrukernes forståelse av lokal mat. Fagrapport nr 1. Statens Institutt for Forbruksforskning, SIFO: Oslo. Retrieved from: https://docplayer.me/8645884-Forbrukernes-forstaelse-av-lokal-mat.html.
  4. Amilien, V., Roos, G., Haugrønning, V., Duboys de Labarre, M., Wavresky, P., Meyer, K., Simons, J., Török, Á., Csillag, P., Biasini, B., Menozzi, D., La Spina, M., Arfini, F., Filipović, J., Ognjanov, G., Veljković, S., Kuč, V., & Tocco, B. (2018). Deliverable 8.2 – Ethnographic study: Qualitative research findings on European Consumers’ food practices linked to sustainable food chains and food quality schemes. Report to the EU Commission. Project Strength2Food.Google Scholar
  5. Åsli, M., & Mørkøre, T. (2011). Dokumentasjon av råstoffegenskaper hos økologisk laks. Forprosjekt. Nofima. Retrieved from: https://nofima.no/filearchive/Rapport%2051-2011.pdf
  6. Bellassen, V., Giraud, G., Hilal, M., Arfini, F., Barczak, A., Bodini, A., Brennan, M., Drut, M., Duboys de Labarre, M., Gorton, M., Hartmann, M., Majewski, E., Muller, P., Monier-Dilhan, S., Poméon, T., Tocco, B., Tregear, A., Veneziani, M., Vergote, M.-H., Vitterso, G., Wavresky, P., & Wilkinson, A. (2016). Strength2Food project, deliverable 3.2: Methods and indicators for measuring the social, environmental and economic impacts of food quality schemes. INRA, Dijon, France.Google Scholar
  7. Borch, O. J. (1878) Le royaume de Norvège et le peuple norvégien. Rapport à l’exposition universelle de 1878 à Paris, Christiania, Th. Steen, 1878 Christiania, Th. Steen.Google Scholar
  8. Borgen, S. O., & Aarset, B. (2016). First the seed, next the smolt? British Food Journal, 118(10), 2598–2612.  https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-02-2016-0048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cargill Aqua Nutrition. (2017). Sustainability report. Retrieved from: https://www.cargill.com/doc/1432118057937/aquaculture-sustainability-report-2017.pdf
  10. Carlson, K. M., Gerber, J. S., Mueller, N. D., Herrero, M., MacDonald, G. K., Brauman, K. A., Havlik, P., O’Connell, C. S., Johnson, J. A., Saatchi, S., & West, P. C. (2016). Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands. Nature Climate Change, 7, 63–68.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, X., Alfnes, F., & Rickertsen, K. (2015). Consumer preferences, ecolabels, and effects of negative environmental information. AgBioforum, 18(3), 327–336. Retrieved from: http://www.agbioforum.org, http://www.agbioforum.org.Google Scholar
  12. Debio. (2018). Om økologisk akvakultur. [online]. Norway. [Cited 19 September 2018]. Retrieved from: https://debio.no/akvakultur/
  13. Direktoratet for e-helse. (2018). Kostråd om fisk og sjømat. [online]. Norway. [Cited 19 September 2018]. Retrieved from: https://helsenorge.no/kosthold-og-ernaring/kostrad/spis-fisk-oftere
  14. Døving, R. (1997) Fisk. En studie av holdninger, vurderinger og forbruk av fisk i Norge. Rapport nr. 12:97, Lysaker, SIFOGoogle Scholar
  15. Dybdal, S. E. (2017). Vil ha mer økologisk laks i norske butikker. Forskning.no. Retrieved from: https://forskning.no/2017/06/vil-ha-mer-okolaks-i-norske-butikker/produsert-og-finansiert-av/nofima
  16. FAO. (2018). Cultured aquatic species information programme. Salmo salar. Text by Jones, M. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 1 January 2004. [Cited 19 September 2018]. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Salmo_salar/en
  17. Grimstad de Perlinghi, M. (2017). Den franske fiskefloken. Norges Sjømatråd. Retrieved from: https://seafood.no/aktuelt/Fisketanker/den-franske-fiskefloken/
  18. Halpern, D. (1999). Social capital: The new golden goose? London: Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
  19. Halvorsen, K. T., et al. (2017). Impact of harvesting cleaner fish for salmonid aquaculture assessed from replicated coastal marine protected areas. Marine Biology Research, 13(4), 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hindar, K., Diserud, O., Fiske, P., Forseth, T., Jensen, A. J., Ugedal, O., Jonsson, N., Sloreid, S., Arnekleiv, J. V., Saltveit, S. J., Sægrov, H., & Sættem, L. M. (2007). Gytebestandsmål for laksebestander i Norge. Norsk Institutt for Naturforskning, Rapport 226. Retrieved from: http://www.nina.no/archive/nina/pppbasepdf/rapport/2007/226.pdf
  21. Just, R. E., & Pope, R. D. (2001). The agricultural producer: Theory and statistical measurement. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 1, 629–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Linnaeus. (1758). Salmo Salar. World register of marine species. Retrieved from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=127186.
  23. Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture. (1999). Om norsk landbruk og matproduksjon. St. meld. nr. 19 (1999–2000). Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  24. Olesen, I., Alfnes, F., Røra, M. B., & Kolstad, K. (2010). Eliciting consumers’ willingness to pay for organic and welfare-labelled salmon in a non-hypothetical choice experiment. Livestock Science, 127(2), 218–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oraqua. (2013). Assessment of organic aquaculture for further development of European regulatory framework. Deliverable 7.2. Progress report and financial report for 1st period. Retrieved from: https://www.oraqua.eu/content/download/110517/1547852/file/D7.2+Progress+report+first+period.pdf?version=1
  26. Pelletier, N., & Tyedmers, P. (2007). Feeding farmed salmon: Is organic better? Aquaculture, 272(1), 399–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. PNS. (2018). High quality seafood from Norway. [online]. Norway. [Cited 19 September 2018]. Retrieved from: http://www.pns.no/en/
  28. Prytz, K. (2009). Moderne slakting av laks. FHF, FHL, Bodø. Retrieved from: https://sjomatnorge.no/wp-content/uploads/importedmedia/FHL_slaktebrosjyre_A5.pdf
  29. Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. In L. Crothers & C. Lockhart (Eds.), Culture and politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Regjeringen. (2017). Nå kan Norge eksportere økologisk laks til EU-land. Nyheter, utenriks. [online]. Norway. Updated 17.03.2017. [Cited 19 September 2018]. Retrieved from https://www.vg.no/nyheter/utenriks/i/aRed2/naa-kan-norge-eksportere-oekologisk-laks-til-eu-land
  31. RIAS Inc. (2016). Comparing the environmental footprint of B.C.’s farm-raised salmon to other food protein sources. RIAS Inc: Ottawa Ontario. Retrieved from: https://www.mpi.govt.nz/dmsdocument/17536-rias-inc-comparing-farm-raised-salmon-to-other-protein-source-marlborough-salmon-relocation-proposal-presentation
  32. Seafood Norway. (2008). Verden og vi. Eksportutvalget for fisk. [online]. Tromsø. [Cited 19 September 2018]. Retrieved from: http://www.nsd.uib.no/polsys/data/filer/aarsmeldinger/AN_2008_6622.pdf
  33. Solvoll, G., Hanssen, T. S., Mathisen, T. A., & Nerdal, S. (2014). Lakseeksporten øker kraftig – press på veger og ferjer. 130 vogntog fylles daglig. Samferdsel, 9. Retrieved from: https://samferdsel.toi.no/nr-09/130-vogntog-fylles-daglig-article32886-1465.html
  34. Statistisk Sentralbyrå. (2018). Eksport av laks. 03024: Eksport av fersk og frosen oppalen laks 2000U01 – 2018U37. Statistikkbanken. Retrieved from: https://www.ssb.no/statbank/table/03024/chartViewColumn/?rxid=110e1db3-c368-4634-9869-767c0f7663f7
  35. Steine, G., Alfnes, F., & Rørå, M. (2005). The effect of color on consumer WTP for farmed salmon. Marine Resource Economics, 20(2), 211–219. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4262947020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Terragni, L., Torjusen, H., & Vittersø, G. (2009). The dynamics of alternative food consumption: Contexts, opportunities and transformations. Anthropology of Food, (5), no pagination specified.Google Scholar
  37. Von Krogh, L. (2013). Er fiskeforbudet i ferd med å snu? Bra Mat. Retrieved from: https://bramat.no/kosthold/matvarer/906-er-fiskeforbruket-i-ferd-med-a-snu
  38. Von Krogh, L. (2015). Deilig mat med omstridt fisk. Matmerk. Retrieved from: https://www.matmerk.no/no/okologisk/helse-og-livsstil/deilig-mat-med-omstridt-fisk
  39. Winther, U., Ziegler, F., Hognes, E. S., Emanuelsson, A., Sund, V., & Ellingsen, H. (2009). Carbon footprint and energy use of Norwegian seafood products (Report No. SFH80 A096068). Trondheim: SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamilla Knutsen Steinnes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Virginie Amilien
    • 1
  • Gunnar Vittersø
    • 1
  1. 1.Consumption Research Norway SIFO – Oslo Metropolitan UniversityOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations