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Pathophysiology of Spinal Pain

  • Annie W. Hsu
  • Steven P. CohenEmail author
  • Yian Chen
Chapter

Abstract

Disorders of the spine are highly prevalent throughout the world and pose an enormous socioeconomic burden, costing billions of dollars in care annually in the United States alone. Treatments must be tailored to the specific spinal pain syndrome and its pathophysiological basis. Disc herniation or stenotic lesions causing nerve root compression will produce different symptoms than a degenerative arthropathy. In this chapter, we discuss the epidemiology, underlying etiology, pathology, and risk factors for a variety of common spinal disorders, including disc herniation, discogenic pain, spinal stenosis, facet arthropathy, and sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. We also highlight the cellular and molecular basis of spine pain secondary to metastatic cancer or primary rheumatological disorders, such as ankylosing spondylitis. Overall, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology underlying common conditions that affect patients with spine pain, with the hope that a firm understanding of the molecular, cellular, and physiological changes may prompt more specific therapy.

Keywords

Spine pain Facet arthropathy Discogenic pain Sacroiliac joint pain Disc herniation Spinal stenosis Radiculopathy Pathophysiology Cancer Inflammatory disease 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineJohns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Neurology, and Physical Medicine and RehabilitationJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Walter Reed National Military Medical CenterBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Anesthesiology and Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

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