Fluoroscopic Images of Spinal Procedures and Radiation Safety

  • David A. EdwardsEmail author
  • Christopher M. Sobey
  • Jenna L. Walters
  • Hamid M. Shah


Fluoroscopy of the spine is the primary imaging tool of the interventional pain physician. Fluoroscopy safety requires an understanding of cumulative exposure limits and in what ways clinicians can limit exposure to themselves, to those assisting with the procedures, and to the patient. Knowledge of fluoroanatomy is important to safely perform interventional techniques using this technology. This chapter demonstrates basic images that should be understood and be able to obtain on one’s own when performing basic interventional techniques for spine treatment.


Fluoroscopy Fluoroanatomy Spine images Imaging X-ray X-radiation Safety Epidural Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sympathetic Vertebra Intervertebral disc Spondylosis Zygapophyseal joint Radiofrequency ablation Medial branch block Celiac plexus Augmentation Kyphoplasty Neuromodulation Spinal cord stimulation 


  1. 1.
    Maus T, Schueler BA, Leng S, Magnuson D, Magnuson DJ, Diehn FE. Radiation dose incurred in the exclusion of vascular filling in transforaminal epidural steroid injections: fluoroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, and CT/fluoroscopy. Pain Med. 2014;15(8):1328–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Radiation risk in perspective: position statement of the Health Physics Society. (2019). Accessed 1 Jun 2019.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Edwards
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher M. Sobey
    • 2
  • Jenna L. Walters
    • 2
  • Hamid M. Shah
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Anesthesiology and Neurological SurgeryVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Neurological Surgery and AnesthesiologyVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations