Spinal Stenosis

  • Julie Petro
  • Damoon Rejaei


Spinal stenosis refers to the abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or nerve root foramina. The diagnosis is primarily based on a combination of clinical signs and symptoms with concomitant pathoanatomical findings on imaging studies. Spinal stenosis can be secondary to the causes of degenerative, congenital, and acquired etiologies. Degenerative causes, such as degenerative disc disease or ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy, are the most common and increase in frequency with advancing age. Anatomic variations of spinal vertebrae at various levels also contribute to varying causes of stenosis. Though variable, the clinical presentation of spinal stenosis is typically that of the insidious onset of back pain and/or radiculopathy with other neurologic symptoms such as dysesthesias, paresthesias, numbness, and motor weakness with or without neurogenic claudication. This chapter will cover the most common etiologies of spinal stenosis with particular attention to unique characteristics at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal levels.


Cervical spinal stenosis Thoracic spinal stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis Central spinal stenosis Neuroforaminal stenosis Lateral recess stenosis Degenerative disc disease Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy Facet arthropathy Back pain 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Petro
    • 1
  • Damoon Rejaei
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain MedicineBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Interventional Pain ManagementSutter Medical FoundationVacavilleUSA

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