Advertisement

Trust

  • Nik Kinley
  • Shlomo Ben-Hur
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors introduce the first element of their Leadership OS model, trust. They describe four components that contribute to trust in the workplace: care, reliability, psychological trust and fairness. Using both their own and previous research, they describe the social and neural underpinnings of trust and the functions it plays in a leaders’ Operating System—how it affects people’s performance. They introduce a case study that highlights the role and importance of trust in leadership (Jose Mourinho at Manchester United), and finally, they describe practical approach leaders can use to increase the degree to which their OS enables and supports trust.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Vrtička, D. Sander and P. Vuilleumier, “Lateralized interactive social content and valence processing within the human amygdala,” Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, vol. 6, no. 358,  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00358, 2013.
  2. 2.
    M. Lieberman, “Social cognitive neuroscience: A review of core processes,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 58, pp. 259–289, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Ledoux, “The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdala,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 23, nos. 4–5, pp. 727–738, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. E. Boyatzis, A. M. Passarelli, K. Koenig, M. Lowe, B. Mathew, J. K. Stoller and M. Phillips, “Examination of the neural substrates activated in memories of experiences with resonant and dissonant leaders,” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 25, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. J. Zak, R. Kurzban and W. T. Matzner, “Oxytocin is associated with human trustworthiness,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 522–527, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Schulze, A. Lischke, J. Greif, S. C. Herpertz, M. Heinrichs and G. Domes, “Oxytocin increases recognition of masked emotional faces,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1378–1382, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Domes, M. Heinrichs, A. Michel, C. Berger and S. Herpertz, “Oxytocin improves “mind-reading” in humans,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 731–733, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Theodoridou, A. Rowe and I. R. P. Penton-Voak, “Oxytocin and social perception: Oxytocin increases perceived facial trustworthiness and attractiveness,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 56, pp. 128–132, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Kirsch, C. Esslinger, Q. Chen, D. Mier, S. Lis, S. Siddhanti, H. Gruppe, V. Mattay and A. Meyer-Lindenberg, “Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 49, pp. 11489–11493, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. De Dreu, L. Greer, G. Van Kleef, S. Shalvi and M. Handgraaf, “Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 1262–1266, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Andari, J. Duhamel, T. Zalla, E. Herbrecht, M. Leboyer and A. Sirigu, “Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, pp. 4389–4394, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. A. Barraza, N. S. Grewal, S. Ropacki, P. Perez, A. Gonzalez and P. J. Zak, “Effects of a 10-day oxytocin trial in older adults on health and well-being,” Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. J. Zak, A. A. Stanton and S. Ahmadi, “Oxytocin increases generosity in humans,” PLOS One, vol. 2, no. 11, p. e1128, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Dirks, “The effects of interpersonal trust on work group performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 445–455, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Gong, S. Cheung, M. Wang and J. Huang, “Unfolding the proactive process for creativity: Integration of the employee proactivity, information exchange, and psychological safety perspectives,” Journal of Management, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1611–1633, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Dirks and D. Ferrin, “Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 4, p. 611, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Zak, “The neuroscience of trust,” Harvard Business Review, January–February, pp. 84–90, 2017.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. Gilbreath and P. Benson, “The contribution of supervisor behaviour to employee psychological well-being,” Work & Stress, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 255–266, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Hannah, M. Uhl-Bien, B. Avolio and F. Cavarretta, A framework for examining leadership in extreme contexts, University of Nebraska Management Department Faculty Publications, Nebraska. Paper 39, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Simons and R. Peterson, “Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: The pivotal role of intragroup trust,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 85, no. 1, p. 102, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Vigoda‐Gadot and I. Talmud, “Organizational politics and job outcomes: The moderating effect of trust and social support,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2829–2861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. A. De Jong and T. Elfring, “How does trust affect the performance of ongoing teams? The mediating role of reflexivity, monitoring, and effort,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 535–549, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Dirks and D. Skarlicki, “Trust in leaders: Existing research and emerging issues,” Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches, vol. 7, pp. 21–40, 2004.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Nyhan, “Changing the paradigm: Trust and its role in public sector organizations,” The American Review of Public Administration, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 87–109, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Dirks, “Trust in leadership and team performance: Evidence from NCAA basketball,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1004–1012, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Ozturk, M. Hancer and Y. Wang, “Interpersonal trust, organizational culture, and turnover intention in hotels: A cross-level perspective,” Tourism Analysis, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 139–150, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Q. Miao, A. Newman and X. Huang, “The impact of participative leadership on job performance and organizational citizenship behavior: Distinguishing between the mediating effects of affective and cognitive trust,” The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 2796–2810, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Costigan, R. Insinga, J. Berman and G. Kranas, “A four‐country study of the relationship of affect‐based trust to turnover intention,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 42, no. 5,  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00880, 2012.
  29. 29.
    K. Atuahene-Gima and H. Li, “When does trust matter? Antecedents and contingent effects of supervisee trust on performance in selling new products in China and the United States,” Journal of Marketing, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 61, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Illes and M. Mathews, “Leadership, trust and communication leadership, trust and communication: Building trust in companies through effective leadership communication,” Westminster Business School, London, 2015.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Dirks and D. Skarlicki, “Trust in leaders: Existing research and emerging issues,” in R. M. Kramer and K. S. Cook (Eds.), The Russell Sage Foundation series on trust: Trust and distrust in organizations: Dilemmas and approaches, New York, NY, Russell Sage Foundation, 2004, pp. 21–40.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Jack, A. Dawson, A. Ciccia, R. Cesaro, K. Barry, A. Snyder and K. Begany, Social and mechanical reasoning define two opposing domains of human higher cognition, Cleveland, OH, Case Western Reserve University, 2010.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. Alarcon, J. Lyons, J. Christensen, K. Klosterman, M. Bowers, T. Ryan, S. Jessup and K. Wynne, “The effect of propensity to trust and perceptions of trustworthiness on trust behaviors in dyads,” Behavior Research Methods, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1906–1920, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Walterbusch, M. Gräuler and F. Teuteberg, “How trust is defined: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of scientific literature,” in 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS, 2014.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    I.L.M., “Index of leadership trust,” Institute of Leadership & Management, London, 2011.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    I.L.M., “The truth about trust: Honesty and integrity at work,” Institute of Leadership & Management, London, 2014.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nik Kinley
    • 1
  • Shlomo Ben-Hur
    • 2
  1. 1.WokingUK
  2. 2.LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations