Advertisement

Leadership OS pp 231-243 | Cite as

Empowerment

  • Nik Kinley
  • Shlomo Ben-Hur
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors introduce the third component of momentum in their Leadership OS model—empowerment. Using both their own and previous research, they describe the social and neural underpinnings of empowerment and the functions it plays in a leaders’ Operating System—how it affects people’s performance. They introduce a case study (Gerry Anderson at DTE Energy) showing the role and importance of empowerment in a leaders’ OS. They then describe practical techniques leaders can use to increase the degree to which their OS enables and supports empowerment. Finally, they introduce a checklist leaders can use to test the extent people experience empowerment in their OS.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Patterson, M. West and T. Wall, “Integrated manufacturing, empowerment, and company performance,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 641–665, 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Gazzoli, M. Hancer and Y. Park, “The role and effect of job satisfaction and empowerment on customers’ perception of service quality: A study in the restaurant industry,” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 56–77, 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Hechanova-Alampay and T. Beehr, “Empowerment, span of control, and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 275, 2001.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Seibert, G. Wang and S. Courtright, “Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: A meta-analytic review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, no. 5, p. 981, 2011.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Bond and P. Flaxman, “The ability of psychological flexibility and job control to predict learning, job performance, and mental health,” Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, vol. 26, no. 1–2, pp. 113–130, 2006.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Bosma, S. Stansfeld and M. Marmot, “Job control, personal characteristics, and heart disease,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 402–409, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Harley, “The myth of empowerment: Work organisation, hierarchy and employee autonomy in contemporary Australian workplaces,” Work, Employment and Society, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 41–66, 1999.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Houghton and S. Yoho, “Toward a contingency model of leadership and psychological empowerment: When should self-leadership be encouraged?” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 65–83, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Stewart, “A meta-analytic review of relationships between team design features and team performance,” Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 29–55, 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Lee, S. Willis and A. Tian, “When empowering employees works, and when it doesn’t,” Harvard Business Review, 2 March 2018.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Cheong, S. Spain, F. Yammarino and S. Yun, “Two faces of empowering leadership: Enabling and burdening,” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 602–616, 2016.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Robert, T. Probst, J. Martocchio, F. Drasgow and J. Lawler, “Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: Predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 85, no. 5, p. 643, 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Biron and P. Bamberger, “The impact of structural empowerment on individual well-being and performance: Taking agent preferences, self-efficacy and operational constraints into account,” Human Relations, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 163–191, 2010.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Romaniuk, A. Sandu, G. Waiter, C. McNeil, X. Shen, M. Harris, J. Macfarlane, S. D. I. Lawrie, A. Murray, M. Delgado, J. Steele, A. Mcintosh and H. Whalley, “The neurobiology of personal control during reward learning and its relation to mood,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 190–199, 2018.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. Halperin, D. Chapman, D. Martin, R. Lewthwaite and G. Wulf, “Choices enhance punching performance of competitive kickboxers,” Psychological Research, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1051–1058, 2016.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Zhang and J. Zhou, “Empowering leadership, uncertainty avoidance, trust, and employee creativity: Interaction effects and a mediating mechanism,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 150–164, 2014.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    X. Zhang and K. Bartol, “Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 107–128, 2010.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Spreitzer, “Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1442–1465, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. McDonough III and G. GloriaBarczak, “Speeding up new product development: The effects of leadership style and source of technology,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 203–211, 1991.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Parker, H. Williams and N. Turner, “Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 636–652, 2006.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Kim and T. Beehr, “Self-efficacy and psychological ownership mediate the effects of empowering leadership on both good and bad employee behaviors,” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 466–478, 2017.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    X. Jiang, H. Flores, R. Leelawong and C. Manz, “The effect of team empowerment on team performance,” International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 62–87, 2016.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Kirkman, B. Rosen, P. Tesluk and C. Gibson, “The impact of team empowerment on virtual team performance: The moderating role of face-to-face interaction,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 175–192, 2004.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Hempel, Z. Zhang and Y. Han, “Team empowerment and the organizational context: Decentralization and the contrasting effects of formalization,” Journal of Management, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 475–501, 2012.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Wallace, P. Johnson, K. Mathe and J. Paul, “Structural and psychological empowerment climates, performance, and the moderating role of shared felt accountability: A managerial perspective,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 840–850, 2011.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Liden, S. Wayne and R. Sparrowe, “An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 85, no. 3, p. 407, 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Zhenxing, Z. Jian, Z. Yujia and Y. Lei, “The relationship between feedback environment, feedback orientation, psychological empowerment and burnout among police in China,” Policing: An International Journal, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 336–350, 2017.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. Gonzalez-Mulé, S. Courtright, D. DeGeest, J. Seong and D. Hong, “Channeled autonomy: The joint effects of autonomy and feedback on team performance through organizational goal clarity,” Journal of Management, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 2018–2033, 2016.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Arnold, S. Arad, J. Rhoades and F. Drasgow, “The empowering leadership questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors,” Journal of Organisational Behaviour, vol. 21, pp. 249–269, 2000.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Khatri, “Consequences of power distance orientation in organisations,” Vision, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2009.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    N. Lorinkova, M. Pearsall and H. Sims, “Examining the differential longitudinal performance of directive versus empowering leadership in teams,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 56, pp. 573–596, 2013.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Spreitzer, “Taking stock: A review of more than twenty years of research on empowerment at work,” Handbook of Organizational Behavior, vol. 1, pp. 54–72, 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nik Kinley
    • 1
  • Shlomo Ben-Hur
    • 2
  1. 1.WokingUK
  2. 2.LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations