Advertisement

Implications, Future Research, and Summary

  • Andre A. PekertiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Emerging Cultural Perspectives in Work, Organizational, and Personnel Studies book series (SSCOW)

Abstract

In this chapter, I explore the practical implications of being n-Cultural in the workplace and future research concerning n-Culturals. A major issue will be measuring the n-Culturals and associated elements fundamental to their existence. The chapter and monograph conclude with a discussion on mentorship. Although the ideal mentor for an individual acculturating to a particular environment would be a stereotypical local individual, I maintain that the two necessary criteria required to be an effective mentor are: (a) recognizing the value of multiculturalism as an asset to organizations and (b) being comfortable with one’s own identity and/or multiculturalism.

Keywords

Balance Bi-cultural Boundary spanner Compatibility of cultures Commitment Identification Ideal mentor Internalization Knowledge Measuring Mono-cultural Multi-cultural n-Cultural Operationalizing performance Networks Salience Well-being 

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I., Czasch, C., & Flood, M. G. (2009). From intentions to behavior: Implementation intention, commitment, and conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(6), 1356–1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006). Assessment of psychological acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 142–162). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Auger, P., Devinney, T. M., & Louviere, J. J. (2007). Using best–worst scaling methodology to investigate consumer ethical beliefs across countries. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(3), 299–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Benet-Martínez, V. (2012). Multiculturalism: Cultural social and personality processes. In K. Deaux & M. Snyder (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology (pp. 623–648). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Benet-Martínez, V., Lee, F., & Leu, J. (2006). Biculturalism and cognitive complexity: Expertise in cultural representations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benet-Martínez, V., Leu, J., Lee, F., & Morris, M. (2002). Negotiating biculturalism: Cultural frame-switching in biculturals with ‘oppositional’ vs. ‘compatible’ cultural identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 492–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, J. W. (2006). Stress perspectives on acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 43–57). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berry, J. W., & Annis, R. C. (1974). Acculturative stress: The role of ecology, culture and differentiation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 5, 382–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhowmik, K. M., Cheung, Y. M. R., & Hue, T. M. (2018). Acculturative stress and coping strategies among mainland Chinese university students in Hong Kong: A qualitative inquiry. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 88(5), 550–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bochner, S. (1981). The social psychology of cultural mediation. In S. Bochner (Ed.), The mediating person (pp. 6–36). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  15. Brislin, R. (1993). Understanding culture’s influence on behavior. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  16. Brislin, R., Landis, D., & Brandt, M. (1983). Conceptualizations of intercultural behavior and training. In D. Landis & R. W. Brislin (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training: Issues in theory and design(Vol. 1, pp. 1–35). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  17. Caliguiri, P. M., & Tarique, I. (2012). Dynamic cross-cultural competencies and global leadership effectiveness. Journal of World Business, 47, 612–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caliguiri, P. M., & Tarique, I. (2016). Cultural agility and international assignee’s effectiveness in cross-cultural interactions. International Journal of Training and Development, 20(4), 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cecere, R. (1986). Difference of kind in philosophical thought. Analytic Teaching, 6(2), 29.Google Scholar
  20. Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R., & Farr, M. (1988). The nature of expertise. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Cushner, K., & Brislin, R. W. (1996). Intercultural interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Donaldson, S. J. & Rona, K. R. (2006). The effects of sports participation on your adolescents emotional well-being. Adolescence, 41, 369–389.Google Scholar
  23. Downie, M., Koestner, R., ElGeledi, S., & Cree, K. (2004). The impact of cultural internalization and integration on well-being among tricultural individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 305–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Downie, M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., & Liodden, T. (2006). On the risk of being a cultural chameleon: Variations in collective self-esteem across social interactions. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 527–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Earley, P. C. & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161–186.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ericsson, A. K., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Finn, A., & Louviere, J. J. (1992). Determining the appropriate response to evidence of public concern: The case of food safety.”. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 11(2), 12–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fiske, S. T. (1982). Schema Triggered Affect: Applications to Social Perception. In M. S. Clarke & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Affect and cognition: The 17th annual Carnegie symposium on cognition (pp. 55–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  30. Fitzsimmons, S. R. (2013). Multicultural Employees: A framework for understanding how they contribute to organizations. Academy of Management Review, 38(4), 525–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Furnham, A., & Bochner, S. (1986). Culture shock: Psychological reactions to unfamiliar environments. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  32. Germain, E. R. (2004). Culture or race? Phenotype and cultural identity development in minority Australian adolescents. Australian Psychologist, 39(2), 134–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hong, Y.-Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C.-Y., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hutnik, N. (1991). Ethnic minority identity. A sociological perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Jahoda, G. (1995). In pursuit of the emic-etic distinction: Can we ever capture it? In N. R. Goldberger & J. B. Veroff (Eds.), The culture and psychology reader (pp. 128–138). New York, NY: University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, C. L. (1985). Growing up and growing old in Italian American families. Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kanthak, K., & Krause, G. A. (2010), Valuing diversity in political organizations: Gender and token minorities in the U.S. House of Representatives. American Journal of Political Science, 54(4), 839–854.Google Scholar
  38. Kuusela, H., & Paul, P. (2000). A comparison of concurrent and retrospective verbal protocol analysis. The American Journal of Psychology, 113, 387–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L. K., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395–412.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lakshman, C. (2013). Biculturalism and attributional complexity: Cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. Journal of International Business Studies, 44, 922–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Laws, J. L. (1975). The psychology of tokenism: An analysis. Sex Roles, 1, 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liao, Y., & Thomas, D. C. (2009). Acculturation as a foundation for multiculturalism research. In Symposium Presentation to the Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  43. Lücke, G., Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2014). Multiculturalism from a cognitive perspective: Patterns and implications. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(2), 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600–616.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marley, A. A. J., & Louviere, J. J. (2005). Some probabilistic model of best, worst, and best-worst choices. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 49, 464–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McLeod, B. (1981). The mediating person and cultural identity. In S. Bochner (Ed.), The mediating person (pp. 37–52). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  47. Mok, A., & Morris, M. (2010). Asian-Americans’ creative styles in Asian and American situations: Assimilative and contrastive responses as a function of bicultural identity integration. Management and Organization Review, 6(3), 371–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moore, A. M., & Barker, G. G. (2012). Confused or multicultural: Third culture individuals’ cultural identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36, 553–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Navas, M., Rojas, A. J., Garcia, M., & Pumares, P. (2007). Acculturation strategies and attitudes according to the Relative Acculturation Extended Model (RAEM): The perspectives of natives versus immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(1), 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nesdale, D. (2002). Acculturation attitudes and the ethnic and host-country identification of immigrants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(7), 1488–1507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Netz, Y., Wu, M.-J., Becker, B. J., & Tenenbaum, G. (2005). Physical activity and psychological well-being in advanced age: A meta-analysis of intervention studies. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 272–284.Google Scholar
  52. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oyserman, D., & Lee, S. W.-S. (2007). Priming “culture”: Culture as situated cognition. In S. Kitayama & C. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology (pp. 255–279). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  54. Pekerti, A. A., Moeller, M., Thomas, D. C., & Napier, N. K. (2015). n-Culturals, the next cross-cultural challenges: Introducing a multicultural mentoring model program. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 15(1), 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pekerti, A. A., & Thomas, D. C. (2016). n-Culturals: Modeling the multicultural identity. Cross Cultural and Strategic Management, 23(1), 101–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pekerti, A. A., Woodland, S., Diack, S., & Pekerti, A. (2011). Valuing cultures through critical incidents: Analyses of cross-cultural encounters and their implications for international business behaviors. Journal of International Business Education, 5, 43–74.Google Scholar
  57. Penedo, F., & Dahn, J. R. (2005). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(2), 198–193.Google Scholar
  58. Perez, M., Voelz, Z. R., Pettir, J. W., & Joiner, T. E., Jr. (2002). The role of acculturative stress and body dissatisfaction in predicting bulimic symptomology across ethnic groups. International Journal of Eating Disorder, 31, 442–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Phinney, J. S., & Alipuria, L. L. (2006). Multiple social categorization and identity among multiracial, multiethnic, and multicultural individuals: Processes and implications. In R. J. Crip & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Multiple social categorization: Processes, models and applications (pp. 211–238). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  60. Pratt, M. G., & Foreman, P. O. (2000). Classifying managerial responses to multiple organizational identities. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 18–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramiah, A. A., & Hewstone, M. (2013). Intergroup contact as a tool for reducing, resolving and preventing intergroup conflict: Evidence, limitations and potential. American Psychologist, 68(7), 527–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roccas, S., Sagiv, L., Schwartz, S., Halevy, N., & Eidelson, R. (2008). Toward a unifying model of identification with groups: Integrating theoretical perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12(3), 280–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rudmin, F. (2009). Constructs, measurements and models of acculturation and acculturative stress. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, 106–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., & Paulhus, D. L. (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or Bi-dimensional?: A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self-identity, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(1), 49–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., Paulhus, D. L., & Dere, J. (2013). Does acculturation predict interpersonal adjustment? It depends on who you talk to. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47(4), 502–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sam, D. L., & Berry, J. W. (2006). Introduction. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 1–7). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sam, D., & Berry, J. L. (2010). Acculturation: When individuals and groups of different cultural backgrounds meet. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), 472–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Snauwaert, B., Soenens, B., Vanbeselaere, N., & Boen, F. (2003). When integration does not necessarily imply integration: Different conceptualizations of acculturation orientations lead to different classifications. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(2), 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sparrow, L. M. (2000). Beyond multicultural man: complexities of identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(2), 173–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stoessel, K., Titzman, P. F., & Silbereisn, R. K. (2012). Young diaspora immigrants’ attitude and behavior toward the host culture. European Psychologists, 17(2), 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stryker, S. (1980). Symbolic interactionism: A social structural version. Menlo Park, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  72. Stryker, S., & Burke, P. J. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(40), 284–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stryker, S., & Serpe, R. T. (1982). Commitment identity salience and role behavior: Theory and research example. In W. Ickes & E. S. Knowles (Eds.), Personality, roles and social behavior (pp. 199–218). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stryker, S., & Serpe, R. T. (1994). Identity salience and psychological centrality: Equivalent, overlapping, or complementary concepts? Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(1), 16–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tadmor, C. T., Galinsky, A. D., & Maddux, W. M. (2012). Getting the most out of living abroad: Biculturalism and integrative complexity as key drivers of creative professional success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(3), 520–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tadmor, C. T., & Tetlock, P. E. (2006). Biculturalism: A model of the effects of second-culture exposure on acculturation and integrative complexity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(2), 173–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Taft, R. (1981). The role and personality of the Mediator. In S. Bochner (Ed.), The mediating person (pp. 53–88). Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  78. Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Tartakovsky, E. (2012). Factors affecting immigrants’ acculturation intentions: A theoretical model and its assessment among adolescent immigrants from Russia and Ukraine in Israel. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(1), 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thomas, D. C., Elron, E., Stahl, G., Ekelund, B. Z., Ravlin, E. C., Cerdin, J.-L., … Lazarova, M. (2008). Cultural intelligence: Domain and assessment. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 8(2), 123–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thomas, D. C., Liao, Y., Aycan, Z., Cerdin, J.-L., Pekerti, A. A., Ravlin, E. C., … van de Vijver, F. S. (2016). Cultural intelligence: A theory-based short form measure. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(9), 1099–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thomas, D. C., Stahl, G., Ravlin, E. C., Poelmans, S., Pekerti A. A., Maznevski, M., … Au, K. (2012). Development of the cultural intelligence assessment. In W. H. Mobley, Y. Wang, & M. Li (Eds.), Advances in global leadership (Vol. 7, pp. 155–178). United Kingdom: Emerald.Google Scholar
  83. Tsui-Auch, L. S. (2005). Unpacking regional ethnicity and the strength of ties in shaping ethnic entrepreneurship. Organization Studies, 26, 1189–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. van de Vijver, F., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis of comparative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. van der Zee, K. I., & van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2000). The multicultural personality questionnaire: A multidimensional instrument for multicultural effectiveness. European Journal of Personality, 14(4), 291–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Verkuyten, M., & Pouliasi, K. (2006). Biculturalism and group identification: The mediating role of identification in cultural frame switching. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 312–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wade-Benzoni, K. A., Okumura, T., Brett, J. M., Moore, D. A., Tenbrunsel, A. E., & Bazerman, M. H. (2002). Cognitions and behavior in asymmetric social dilemmas: A comparison of two cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ward, C., & Kus, L. (2012). Back to and beyond Berry’s basics: The conceptualization, operationalization and classification of acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 471–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yampolsky, M. A., & Amiot, C. E. (2016). The multicultural identity scale (MULTIIS): Developing a comprehensive measure for configuring one’s multiple cultural identities within the self. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22(2), 166–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UQ Business SchoolThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations