The work and social environment in many parts of the world consists of individuals of multiple cultural backgrounds. Extending Benet-Martínez, Lee, and Leu’s (2006) empirical definition of multicultural individuals, this chapter introduces a within-individual model of multiculturalism. It lays the foundation to explore the notion of multiculturalism within individuals. The chapter concludes with the definitions of bicultural and multicultural individuals, as well as a new concept, that is, n-Cultural individuals.
KeywordsAcculturation Bicultural Cognitive Monocultural Multicultural Multiculturalism within individual Work environments n-Cultural Social identity
- Australian Bureau of Statistics—ABS. (2016). Multicultural. Retrieved March 01, 2019, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/Media%20Release3.
- Benet-Martínez, V. (2012). Multiculturalism: Cultural social and personality processes. In K. Deaux & M. Snyder (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology (pp. 623–648). New York NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Benet-Martínez, V., Lee, F., & Leu, J. (2006). Biculturalism and cognitive complexity; Expertise in cultural representations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 1–23.Google Scholar
- Berry, J. W. (1997). Cruising the world: A nomad in academe. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), Working at the interface of cultures (pp. 138–153). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Boyacigiller, N. A., Goodman, R. A., Phillips, M. A., & Pearce, J. L. (2003). Crossing cultures: Insights from master teachers. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Brislin, R. W., & Yoshida, T. (1994). Improving intercultural interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Calhoun, L. (2015, June 30). 5 leadership lessons from Obama. Inc.com. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from https://www.inc.com/lisa-calhoun/5-leadership-lessons-from-obama.html.
- Calmes, J. (2012, May 24). When a boy found a familiar feel in a pat of the head of state. The New York Times, p. A16.Google Scholar
- Cushner, K., & Brislin, R. W. (1996). Intercultural interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Cutler, J. (2005). The cross-cultural communication trainer’s manual (Vol. 1, 2). Burlington, VT: Gower.Google Scholar
- Healey, J. (2005). The changing workplace. Issues in Society Series, (Vol. 217). Thirroul, NSW: Spinney Press.Google Scholar
- Hong, Y., Wan, C., No, S., & Chiu, C. (2007). Multicultural identities. In S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology (pp. 323–345). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Lakshman, C. (2013). Biculturalism and attributional complexity: Cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. Journal of International Business Studies, 44, 922–940.Google Scholar
- Lee, J. H., & Church, T. A. (2017). Social anxiety in Asian Americans: Integrating personality and cultural factors. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 103–114.Google Scholar
- Nguyen, A. M. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2010). Multicultural identity. In R. J. Crisp (Ed.), The psychology of social and cultural diversity (pp. 87–114). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Thomas, D. C. (2010). Cultural intelligence and all that jazz: A cognitive revolution in international management research? In T. M. Devinney, T. Pedersen, & L. Tihanyi (Eds.), Advances in international management: The past, present and future of international business and management (Vol. 23, pp. 169–187). New York, NY: Emerald.Google Scholar
- Thomas, D. C., Brannen, M. Y., & Garcia, D. (2010). Bicultural individuals and intercultural effectiveness. European Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management, 1(4), 315–333.Google Scholar
- United States Census Bureau—USCB. (2017). Quick facts statistics and estimates. Retrieved March 01, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045218.