Advertisement

Internet

  • Julian McDougallEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

It’s the internet’s thirtieth birthday, which coincides with a deluge of revelations about how out of control it is. Tim Berners-Lee, its creator, is not in a celebratory mood, instead reflecting on the dysfunctional adoption of his invention and calling for us to change direction before it is too late. How did we get here? Can we agree, yet, on the history of the internet? Actually, the internet has been around for longer, so what we are really talking about is our use of it in the form of the web. This revolution in human existence, like all the others before it, is about connection. The web enables every ‘bit’ to interact with every other in digital form. And what we’re also talking about here is the subsequent use of the web by people with the capacity to organize it on our behalf, imposing order on infinite freedom—in other words, Google. Next, we’re talking about the rapid race to make money out of the web—its economic model, in the form of advertising in return for ‘free’ use, and then the use of our data. And what makes all this possible is the way that the web encourages and rewards very quick interaction—the new ‘attention economy’—at the expense of more measured consideration—and these would be the conditions for ‘fake news’.

References

  1. Ahmed, S. (2004). The Cultural Politics of Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Berners-Lee, T. (2019, March 11). The World Wide Web Turns 30: Where Does It Go from Here? Wired. https://www.wired.com/story/tim-berners-lee-world-wide-web-anniversary/.
  3. Bourdieu, P. (2013). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Briant, E. (2018, April 17). Cambridge Analytica and SCL: How I Peered Inside the Propaganda Machine. The Conversation.Google Scholar
  5. Bucy, E., & Newhagen, J. (2018). Fake News Finds an Audience. In J. E. Katz (Ed.), Social Media and Journalism’s Search for Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Buckingham, D. (2019). How Much Trust in Media Do We Need? https://davidbuckingham.net/2019/03/12/how-much-trust-in-media-do-we-need/.
  7. Cable, J., & Mottershead, G. (2018). Can I Click It? Yes, You Can: Sport Journalism, Twitter, and Clickbait. Ethical Space: The International Journal of Communication Ethics, 15(1/2), 69–80.Google Scholar
  8. Cadwalladr, C. (2019, March 17). The Cambridge Analytica Files. The Observer.Google Scholar
  9. Curran, J., & Seaton, J. (2018). Power Without Responsibility: Press, Broadcasting and the Internet in Britain. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Derakhshan, H. (2019, May 9). Disinfo Wars: A Taxonomy of Information Warfare. Medium. https://medium.com/@h0d3r/disinfo-wars-7f1cf2685e13. Accessed 9 May 2019.
  11. Dix, A. (2018). Time Travelling to the Civil Rights Era. https://blog.lboro.ac.uk/news/art/time-travelling-to-the-civil-rights-era/. Accessed 31 August 2019.
  12. Firmstone, J. (2018). Saving the Local News Media: What Matt Hancock’s Review Needs to Know. LSE Politics and Policy Blog. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/88780/1/politicsandpolicy-saving-the-local-news-media-what-matt-hancocks.pdf. Accessed 31 August 2019.
  13. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977 (C. Gordon, Ed.). London: Harvester.Google Scholar
  14. Frau-Meigs, D. (2017). Developing a Critical Mind Against Fake News. The UNESCO Courier—The Media: Operation Decontamination, 12–15.Google Scholar
  15. Galtung, J., & Ruge, M. (1965). The Structure of Foreign News: The Presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus Crises in Four Norwegian Newspapers. Journal of International Peace Research, 2, 64–90.Google Scholar
  16. Gauntlett, D. (2015). Making Media Studies. London: Polity.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harte, D. (2018). ‘Imagine Doing a Journalism Degree and Then Being Asked to Write Trash Like This’—Considerations in Meeting the Challenges of Banal Journalism. http://ajeuk.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/HARTE-AJE-banal-journalism-2018.pdf.
  18. Hewitt, B. (2017, December 8). How to Spot Fake News—An Expert’s Guide for Young People. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/how-to-spot-fake-news-an-experts-guide-for-young-people-88887.
  19. Horeck, T., Jenner, M., & Kendall, T. (2018). On Binge-Watching: Nine Critical Propositions. Critical Studies in Television, 13(4), 499–504.Google Scholar
  20. Karlsson, K., & Clerwall, C. (2018). Cornerstones in Journalism. Journalism Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670x.2018.1499436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lindgren, S. (2017). Digital Media and Society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Livingstone, S., & Sefton-Green, J. (2016). The Class: Living and Learning in a Digital Age. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. London School of Economics. (2019). Trust, Truth and Technology. London: LSE Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Lupton, D. (2019). Data Selves: More-than-Human Perspectives. London: Polity.Google Scholar
  25. Madrigal, A. (2014). How Netflix Reverse Engineered Hollywood. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/01/how-netflix-reverse-engineered-hollywood/282679/.
  26. McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  27. Merrin, W. (2014). Media Studies 2.0. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Moore, M. (2018). Democracy Hacked: Political Turmoil and Information Warfare in the Digital Age. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  29. Myers, F. (2019, April 9). The Era of Internet Freedom Is Over. Wired.Google Scholar
  30. O’Hara, K., & Hall, W. (2018). 4 Internets: The Geopolitics of Digital Governance. Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation.Google Scholar
  31. Poitras, L. (2014). Citizen 4. USA: Praxis Films.Google Scholar
  32. Read, M. (2018). How Much of the Internet Is Fake? New York: Intelligencer. http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2018/12/how-much-of-the-internet-is-fake.html.
  33. Resser, M. (2017). Fake News: Sound Bites on a Burning Topic. The UNESCO Courier—The Media: Operation Decontamination, 11.Google Scholar
  34. Rosenberg, H., & Feldman, C. (2009). No Time to Think: The Menace of Media Speed and the 24 Hour News Cycle. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  35. Sonwalkar, P. (2005). Banal Journalism. In S. Allan (Ed.), Journalism: Critical Issues (pp. 262–273). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  36. Stewart, H., & Hern, A. (2019, April 4). Social Media Bosses Could Be Liable for Harmful Content, Leaked UK Plan Reveals. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  37. Viner, K. (2017, November 16). A Mission for Journalism in a Time of Crisis. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  38. Wardle, C., & Derakhshan, H. (2017). Information Disorder Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policymaking. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  39. Williamson, B. (2017). Big Data in Education: The Digital Future of Learning, Policy and Practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Yaloyan. M. (2017). Aftenposten Versus Facebook: Triggering a Crucial Debate. The UNESCO Courier—The Media: Operation Decontamination, 16–19.Google Scholar
  41. Zuckerberg, M. (2019, March 30). The Internet Needs New Rules: Let’s Start in These Four Areas. The Washington Post.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Excellence in Media PracticeBournemouth UniversityPooleUK

Personalised recommendations