Advertisement

Structuring Semisolid Foods

  • Juzhong TanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)

Abstract

The microstructure of semisolid foods can have great impact on their texture, functional properties, and rheological properties. Semisolid food microstructures can be modified during their manufacturing process by either altering processing parameters or adding functional ingredients. Functional ingredients for creating and altering food microstructures include proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids are introduced; key food structural features include protein and polysaccharide networks, emulsions, and foams. Processing strategies that can influence these food microstructures include homogenization, heat treatment, and acidification. Illustration of how formulation and processing can impact semisolid food microstructures can be found in yogurt, whipped cream, and ice cream: adding functional ingredients, such as dietary fibers, gums, calcium, and whey protein isolates, as well as altering their processing parameters, can dramatically change their microstructural features.

References

  1. Adebowale, K. O., & Lawal, O. S. (2003). Microstructure, physicochemical properties and retrogradation behaviour of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) starch on heat moisture treatments. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(02)00076-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, J. M., & Kessler, H. -G. (1989). Properties of mixed and filled-type dairy gels. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1989.tb05957.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhtar, M., Murray, B. S., & Dickinson, E. (2006). Perception of creaminess of model oil-in-water dairy emulsions: Influence of the shear-thinning nature of a viscosity-controlling hydrocolloid. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2005.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amador-Espejo, G. G., Suàrez-Berencia, A., Juan, B., Bárcenas, M. E., & Trujillo, A. J. (2014). Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansbacher, S., Flanigan, G. E., & Suplee, G. C. (2010). Certain foam producing substances of milk. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(34)93294-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aziznia, S., Khosrowshahi, A., Madadlou, A., & Rahimi, J. (2008). Whey protein concentrate and gum tragacanth as fat replacers in nonfat yogurt: Chemical, physical, and microstructural properties. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badii, F., & Howell, N. K. (2006). Fish gelatin: Structure, gelling properties and interaction with egg albumen proteins. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2005.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beal, C., Skokanova, J., Latrille, E., Martin, N., & Corrieu, G. (1999). Combined effects of culture conditions and storage time on acidification and viscosity of stirred yogurt. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75283-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooker, B. E. (1993). The stabilization of air in foods containing fat -- a review. Food Structure, 12, 12.Google Scholar
  10. Byrne, B. M., Gruber, M., & Ab, G. (1989). The evolution of egg yolk proteins. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6107(89)90005-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Çakir, E., & Foegeding, E. A. (2011). Combining protein micro-phase separation and protein-polysaccharide segregative phase separation to produce gel structures. Food Hydrocolloids, 25, 1538–1546.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calero, N., Muñoz, J., Cox, P. W., Heuer, A., & Guerrero, A. (2013). Influence of chitosan concentration on the stability, microstructure and rheological properties of O/W emulsions formulated with high-oleic sunflower oil and potato protein. Food Hydrocolloids, 30, 152–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Camacho, M. M., Martínez-Navarrete, N., & Chiralt, A. (1998). Influence of locust bean gum/λ-carrageenan mixtures on whipping and mechanical properties and stability of dairy creams. Food Research International, 31, 653–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrillo, A. R., & Kokini, J. L. (1988). Effect of egg yolk and egg yolk + salt on rheological properties and particle size distribution of model oil-in- water salad dressing emulsions. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb09275.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chanamai, R., & McClements, D. J. (2002). Comparison of gum arabic, modified starch, and whey protein isolate as emulsifiers: Influence of pH, CaCl2 and temperature. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb11370.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Charoen, R., Jangchud, A., Jangchud, K., Harnsilawat, T., Naivikul, O., & McClements, D. J. (2011). Influence of biopolymer emulsifier type on formation and stability of rice bran oil-in-water emulsions: Whey protein, gum arabic, and modified starch. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01959.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, J., & Dickinson, E. (1993). Time-dependent competitive adsorption of milk proteins and surfactants in oil-in-water emulsions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740620312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciron, C. I. E., Gee, V. L., Kelly, A. L., & Auty, M. A. E. (2010). Comparison of the effects of high-pressure microfluidization and conventional homogenization of milk on particle size, water retention and texture of non-fat and low-fat yoghurts. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.11.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Commission, C. A. (2008). Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) online database. Codex Stand. 118–1979.Google Scholar
  20. Crispín-Isidro, G., Lobato-Calleros, C., Espinosa-Andrews, H., Alvarez-Ramirez, J., & Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2015). Effect of inulin and agave fructans addition on the rheological, microstructural and sensory properties of reduced-fat stirred yogurt. LWT- Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.06.042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cuq, B., Aymard, C., Cuq, J. -L., & Guilbert, S. (1995). Edible packaging films based on fish myofibrillar proteins: Formulation and functional properties. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb04593.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dahbi, L., Alexander, M., Trappe, V., Dhont, J. K. G., & Schurtenberger, P. (2010). Rheology and structural arrest of casein suspensions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2009.10.042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dawkins, N. L., & Nnanna, I. A. (1995). Studies on oat gum [(1→ 3, 1→ 4)-β-D-glucan]: Composition, molecular weight estimation and rheological properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 9, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dello Staffolo, M., Bertola, N., Martino, M., & Bevilacqua, A. (2004). Influence of dietary fiber addition on sensory and rheological properties of yogurt. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2003.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Depree, J. A., & Savage, G. P. (2001). Physical and flavour stability of mayonnaise. Trends in Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00079-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dickinson, E. (1987). Food emulsions and foams. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  27. Dickinson, E. (2006). Structure formation in casein-based gels, foams, and emulsions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dickinson, E. (2009). Hydrocolloids as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2008.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dickinson, E. (2010). Food emulsions and foams: Stabilization by particles. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1989.tb03180.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dickinson, E., & Golding, M. (1998). Influence of calcium ions on creaming and rheology of emulsions containing sodium caseinate. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00573-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dickinson, E., Radford, S. J., & Golding, M. (2003). Stability and rheology of emulsions containing sodium caseinate: Combined effects of ionic calcium and non-ionic surfactant. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(02)00055-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Diftis, N. G., Pirzas, T. A., & Kiosseoglou, V. D. (2005). Emulsifying properties of gelatin conjugated to pectin under alkaline conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Djagny, K. B., Wang, Z., & Xu, S. (2001). Gelatin: A valuable protein for food and pharmaceutical industries: Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20014091091904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dolan, K. D., Singh, R. P., & Wells, J. H. (1985). Evaluation of time-temperature related quality changes in ice cream during storage. Journal of Food Processing & Preservation.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.1985.tb00725.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dolz, M., Hernández, M. J., & Delegido, J. (2006). Oscillatory measurements for salad dressings stabilized with modified starch, xanthan gum, and locust bean gum. Journal of Applied Polymer Science.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.24125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blecker, C., & Attia, H. (2011). Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food Chemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ercelebi, E. A., & Ibanoǧlu, E. (2007). Influence of hydrocolloids on phase separation and emulsion properties of whey protein isolate. Journal of Food Engineering.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.05.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Erçelebi, E. A., & Ibanoǧlu, E. (2009). Rheological properties of whey protein isolate stabilized emulsions with pectin and guar gum. European Food Research and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1056-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Espírito-Santo, A. P., Lagazzo, A., Sousa, A. L. O. P., Perego, P., Converti, A., & Oliveira, M. N. (2013). Rheology, spontaneous whey separation, microstructure and sensorial characteristics of probiotic yoghurts enriched with passion fruit fiber. Food Research International.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fernández García, E., & McGregor, J. U. (1997). Fortification of sweetened plain yogurt with insoluble dietary fiber. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170050108.
  41. Fitt, L. E., & Snyder, E. M. (1984). Photomicrographs of starches. In Starch: Chemistry and technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-746270-7.50029-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fox, P., & Mcsweeney, P. (2015). Dairy chemistry and biochemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14892-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gallant, D. J., Bouchet, B., & Baldwin, P. M. (1997). Microscopy of starch: Evidence of a new level of granule organization. Carbohydrate Polymers.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(97)00008-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gentès, M.-C., St-Gelais, D., Turgeon, S. L., Gentès, M.-C., St-Gelais, D., & Turgeon, S. L. (2011). Gel formation and rheological properties of fermented milk with in situ exopolysaccharide production by lactic acid bacteria. Dairy Science & Technology, 91, 645–661.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13594-011-0039-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goff, H. D. (1997). Colloidal aspects of ice cream - A review. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(97)00040-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Green, A. J., Littlejohn, K. A., Hooley, P., & Cox, P. W. (2013). Formation and stability of food foams and aerated emulsions: Hydrophobins as novel functional ingredients. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 18, 292–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gu, Y. S., Decker, E. A., & McClements, D. J. (2005). Influence of pH and carrageenan type on properties of β-lactoglobulin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2004.04.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guggisberg, D., Cuthbert-Steven, J., Piccinali, P., Bütikofer, U., & Eberhard, P. (2009). Rheological, microstructural and sensory characterization of low-fat and whole milk set yoghurt as influenced by inulin addition. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gunstone, F. (2011). Vegetable oils in food technology: Composition, properties and uses. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  50. Harte, F., Luedecke, L., Swanson, B., & Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. (2003). Low-fat set yogurt made from milk subjected to combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73690-X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hartel, R. W. (1996). Ice crystallization during the manufacture of ice cream. Trends in Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(96)10033-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harwalkar, V. R., & Kalab, M. (1986). Relationship between microstructure and susceptibility to syneresis in yoghurt made from reconstituted nonfat dry milk. Food Structure, 5, 13.Google Scholar
  53. Hasenhuettl, G. L., & Hartel, R. W. (2008). Food emulsifiers and their applications. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Heertje, I. (1993). Structure and function of food products: A review. Food Structure, 12, 7.Google Scholar
  55. Heertje, I. (2014). Structure and function of food products: A review. Food Structure.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foostr.2013.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huppertz, T., & de Kruif, C. G. (2008). Structure and stability of nanogel particles prepared by internal cross-linking of casein micelles. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.10.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Innocente, N., Biasutti, M., Venir, E., Spaziani, M., & Marchesini, G. (2009). Effect of high-pressure homogenization on droplet size distribution and rheological properties of ice cream mixes. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Iriondo-Dehond, M., Miguel, E., & Del Castillo, M. D. (2018). Food byproducts as sustainable ingredients for innovative and healthy dairy foods. Nutrients.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101358.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kalab, M. (1990). Microparticulate protein in foods. Journal of the American College of Nutrition.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1990.10720396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kalab, M., Emmons, D. B., & Sargant, A. G. (1976). Milk gel structure. V. Microstructure of yoghurt as related to the heating of milk. Milchwissenschaft, 31, 402–408.Google Scholar
  61. Karam, M. C., Gaiani, C., Hosri, C., Burgain, J., & Scher, J. (2013). Effect of dairy powders fortification on yogurt textural and sensorial properties: A review. The Journal of Dairy Research.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029913000514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Karas, R., Skvarča, M., & Žlender, B. (2002). Sensory quality of standard and light mayonnaise during storage. Food Technology and Biotechnology.Google Scholar
  63. Karim, A. A., & Bhat, R. (2009). Fish gelatin: Properties, challenges, and prospects as an alternative to mammalian gelatins. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2008.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaur, L., Singh, J., Singh, H., & McCarthy, O. J. (2008). Starch-cassia gum interactions: A microstructure - Rheology study. Food Chemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Keogh, M. K., & O’Kennedy, B. T. (1998). Rheology of stirred yogurt as affected by added milk fat, protein and hydrocolloids. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb15687.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Korhonen, M., Hellen, L., Hirvonen, J., & Yliruusi, J. (2001). Rheological properties of creams with four different surfactant combinations - effect of storage time and conditions. International Journal of Pharmaceutics.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(01)00675-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Koxholt, M. M. R., Eisenmann, B., & Hinrichs, J. (2001). Effect of the fat globule sizes on the meltdown of ice cream. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74448-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kralova, I., & Sjöblom, J. (2009). Surfactants used in food industry: A review. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01932690902735561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kristinsson, H. G., & Rasco, B. A. (2000). Fish protein hydrolysates: Production, biochemical, and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408690091189266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kyaw, Z. Y., Yu, S. Y., Cheow, C. S., Dzulkifly, M. H., & Howell, N. K. (2001). Effect of fish to starch ratio on viscoelastic properties and microstructure of fish cracker (‘keropok’) dough. International Journal of Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2001.00481.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lai, L. S., & Lin, P. H. (2004). Application of decolourised hsian-tsao leaf gum to low-fat salad dressing model emulsions: A rheological study. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lee, W. J., & Lucey, J. A. (2004). Structure and physical properties of yogurt gels: Effect of inoculation rate and incubation temperature. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73450-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee, W. J., & Lucey, J. A. (2010). Formation and physical properties of yogurt. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.r.05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lian, G., Moore, S., & Heeney, L. (2006). Population balance and computational fluid dynamics modelling of ice crystallisation in a scraped surface freezer. Chemical Engineering Science.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2006.08.075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lim, S.-Y., Swanson, B. G., Ross, C. F., & Clark, S. (2008). High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu, H., Xu, X. M., & Guo, S. D. (2007). Rheological, texture and sensory properties of low-fat mayonnaise with different fat mimetics. LWT- Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu, Y., Chen, J., Luo, S., Li, C., Ye, J., Liu, C., & Gilbert, R. G. (2017). Physicochemical and structural properties of pregelatinized starch prepared by improved extrusion cooking technology. Carbohydrate Polymers.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.07.084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Long, Z., Zhao, M., Zhao, Q., Yang, B., & Liu, L. (2012). Effect of homogenisation and storage time on surface and rheology properties of whipping cream. Food Chemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lopes, D. G., Becker, K., Stehr, M., Lochmann, D., Haack, D., Zimmer, A., & Salar-Behzadi, S. (2015). Role of lipid blooming and crystallite size in the performance of highly soluble drug-loaded microcapsules. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lucey, J. A., & Singh, H. (1997). Formation and physical properties of acid milk gels: A review. Food Research International.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(98)00015-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lucey, J. A., Teo, C. T., Munro, P. A., & Singh, H. (1997). Rheological properties at small (dynamic) and large (yield) deformations of acid gels made from heated milk. The Journal of Dairy Research.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029997002380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mackie, I. M. (1982). Fish protein hydrolysates. Process Biochemistry, 17, 26–27.Google Scholar
  83. Mandala, I., Michon, C., & Launay, B. (2004a). Phase and rheological behaviors of xanthan/amylose and xanthan/starch mixed systems. Carbohydrate Polymers.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.07.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mandala, I. G., Savvas, T. P., & Kostaropoulos, A. E. (2004b). Xanthan and locust bean gum influence on the rheology and structure of a white model-sauce. Journal of Food Engineering.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.10.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Martin, N. C., Skokanova, J., Latrille, E., Beal, C., & Corrieu, G. (1999). Influence of fermentation and storage conditions on the sensory properties of plain low fat stirred yogurts. Journal of Sensory Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-459X.1999.tb00109.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Martínez-Padilla, L. P., García-Rivera, J. L., Romero-Arreola, V., & Casas-Alencáster, N. B. (2015). Effects of xanthan gum rheology on the foaming properties of whey protein concentrate. Journal of Food Engineering.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.01.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McClements, D. J. (2015). Food emulsions: principles, practices, and techniques. Boca Raton: CRC press.Google Scholar
  88. Michalski, M.-C., Camier, B., Briard, V., Leconte, N., Gassi, J.-Y., Goudédranche, H., Michel, F., & Fauquant, J. (2004). The size of native milk fat globules affects physico-chemical and functional properties of Emmental cheese. Le Lait.  https://doi.org/10.1051/lait:2004012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Michon, C., Cuvelier, G., Relkin, P., & Launay, B. (1997). Influence of thermal history on the stability of gelatin gels. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-8130(97)00024-X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mine, Y. (1998). Emulsifying characterization of hens egg yolk proteins in oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(98)00054-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mottar, J., Bassier, A., Joniau, M., & Baert, J. (2010). Effect of heat-induced association of whey proteins and casein micelles on yogurt texture. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(89)79355-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mun, S., Kim, Y. L., Kang, C. G., Park, K. H., Shim, J. Y., & Kim, Y. R. (2009). Development of reduced-fat mayonnaise using 4αGTase-modified rice starch and xanthan gum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2009.02.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Murray, B. S. (2007). Stabilization of bubbles and foams. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cocis.2007.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Naik, L., Sharma, R., Rajput, Y. S., & Manju, G. (2013). Application of high pressure processing technology for dairy food preservation-future perspective: A review. Journal of Animal Production Advances, 3, 232–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Narine, S. S., & Marangoni, A. G. (1999). Relating structure of fat crystal networks to mechanical properties: A review. Food Research International.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(99)00078-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Needs, E. C., Capellas, M., Bland, A. P., Manoj, P., Macdougal, D., & Paul, G. (2000). Comparison of heat and pressure treatments of skim milk, fortified with whey protein concentrate, for set yogurt preparation: Effects on milk proteins and gel structure. The Journal of Dairy Research.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900004301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Neirynck, N., Dewettinck, K., & Van Der Meeren, P. (2007). Influence of pH and biopolymer ratio on sodium caseinate—guar gum interactions in aqueous solutions and in O/W emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 21, 862–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Noda, M., & Shiinoki, Y. (1986). Microstructure and rheological behavior of whipping cream. Journal of Texture Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.1986.tb00404.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Panyam, D. (1996). Enhancing the functionality of food proteins by enzymatic modification. Trends in Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(96)10012-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Parnell-Clunies, E. (1987). Microstructure of yogurt as affected by heat treatment of milk. Milchwissenschaft, 42, 413–417.Google Scholar
  101. Patino, J. M. R., Nino, M. R. R., Dickinson, E., & Patino, J. M. R. (1999). Food emulsions and foams: Interfaces, interactions and stability. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.Google Scholar
  102. Penna, A. L. B., Subbarao, G., & Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. (2007). High hydrostatic pressure processing on microstructure of probiotic low-fat yogurt. Food Research International.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pernell, C. W., Foegeding, E. A., Luck, P. J., & Davis, J. P. (2002). Properties of whey and egg white protein foams. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(01)01061-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Perrechil, F. A., & Cunha, R. L. (2010). Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate: Influence of pH, high-pressure homogenization and locust bean gum addition. Journal of Food Engineering.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.10.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pycia, K., Juszczak, L., & Gałkowska, D. (2016). Effect of native potato starch maltodextrins on stability and rheological properties of albumin foams. Starch-Stärke, 68, 611–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Radford, S. J., Dickinson, E., & Golding, M. (2004). Stability and rheology of emulsions containing sodium caseinate: Combined effects of ionic calcium and alcohol. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2003.12.045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ramirez-Santiago, C., Ramos-Solis, L., Lobato-Calleros, C., Peña-Valdivia, C., Vernon-Carter, E. J., & Alvarez-Ramírez, J. (2010). Enrichment of stirred yogurt with soluble dietary fiber from Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban: Effect on syneresis, microstructure and rheological properties. Journal of Food Engineering.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.06.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ratnayake, W. S., & Jackson, D. S. (2008). Starch gelatinization. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 55, 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Roach, R. R., & Hoseney, R. C. (1995). Effect of certain surfactants on the swelling, solubility and amylograph consistency of starch. Cereal Chemistry, 72, 571.Google Scholar
  110. Roesch, R. R., & Corredig, M. (2003). Texture and microstructure of emulsions prepared with soy protein concentrate by high-pressure homogenization. LWT- Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(02)00208-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sanchez, C., Zuniga-Lopez, R., Schmitt, C., Despond, S., & Hardy, J. (2000). Microstructure of acid-induced skim milk-locust bean gum-xanthan gels. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00030-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sandoval-Castilla, O., Lobato-Calleros, C., Aguirre-Mandujano, E., & Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2004). Microstructure and texture of yogurt as influenced by fat replacers. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00166-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schmidt, K. A., & Smith, D. E. (2010). Effects of homogenization on sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(88)79523-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Singh, G., & Muthukumarappan, K. (2008). Influence of calcium fortification on sensory, physical and rheological characteristics of fruit yogurt. LWT- Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.08.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Singh, H., Roberts, M. S., Munro, P. A., & Teo, C. T. (1996). Acid-induced dissociation of casein micelles in milk: Effects of heat treatment. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76490-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Slavin, J. L. (2005). Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Slavin, J. L. (2008). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health implications of dietary fiber. Journal of the American Dietetic Association.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.08.007.
  118. Smith, A. K., Goff, H. D., & Kakuda, Y. (2000). Microstructure and rheological properties of whipped cream as affected by heat treatment and addition of stabilizer. International Dairy Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00043-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Snoeren, T. H. M., Both, P., & Schmidt, D. G. (1976). An electron-microscopic study of carrageenan and its interaction with kappa-casein. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 30, 132.Google Scholar
  120. Sodini, I., Remeuf, F., Haddad, C., & Corrieu, G. (2004). The relative effect of milk base, starter, and process on yogurt texture: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408690490424793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stevens, L. (1991). Egg white proteins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(91)90076-P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Su, H. P., Lien, C. P., Lee, T. A., & Ho, J. H. (2010). Development of low-fat mayonnaise containing polysaccharide gums as functional ingredients. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3888.
  123. Sun, C., & Gunasekaran, S. (2009). Effects of protein concentration and oil-phase volume fraction on the stability and rheology of menhaden oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate with xanthan gum. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2007.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Supavititpatana, P., Wirjantoro, T. I., Apichartsrangkoon, A., & Raviyan, P. (2008). Addition of gelatin enhanced gelation of corn-milk yogurt. Food Chemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tamime, A. Y., Barrantes, E., & Sword, A. M. (1996). The effect of starch based fat substitutes on the microstructure of set-style yogurt made from reconstituted skimmed milk powder. International Journal of Dairy Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0307.1996.tb02612.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Teggatz, J. A., & Morris, H. A. (1990). Food structure changes in the rheology and microstructure of ropy yogurt during shearing. Food Structure, 9, 133.Google Scholar
  127. Trgo, C., Koxholt, M., & Kessler, H. G. (1999). Effect of freezing point and texture regulating parameters on the initial ice crystal growth in ice cream. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75254-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. van Marle, M. E. (1998). Structure and rheological properties of yoghurt gels and stirred yoghurts.Google Scholar
  129. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B., & Lewis, B. A. (2010). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(91)78551-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Walsh-O’Grady, C. D., O’Kennedy, B. T., Fitzgerald, R. J., & Lane, C. N. (2001). A rheological study of acid-set “simulated yogurt milk” gels prepared from heat-or pressure-treated milk proteins. Le Lait, 81, 637–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wildmoser, H., Scheiwiller, J., & Windhab, E. J. (2004). Impact of disperse microstructure on rheology and quality aspects of ice cream. LWT - Food Science and Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2004.04.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Worrasinchai, S., Suphantharika, M., Pinjai, S., & Jamnong, P. (2006). β-Glucan prepared from spent brewer’s yeast as a fat replacer in mayonnaise. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2005.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Xiong, Y. L., Aguilera, J. M., & Kinsella, J. E. (1991). Emulsified milkfat effects on rheology of acid-induced milk gels. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb14606.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yusoff, A., & Murray, B. S. (2011). Modified starch granules as particle-stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.05.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhang, T., Mccarthy, J., Wang, G., Liu, Y., & Guo, M. (2015). Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats’ milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer. Journal of Food Science.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zhao, Q., Zhao, M., Yang, B., & Cui, C. (2009). Effect of xanthan gum on the physical properties and textural characteristics of whipped cream. Food Chemistry.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations