Advertisement

Novel CT Acquisition

  • Lifeng YuEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

With major advances in x-ray source and detector technology during past decades, CT exams can be performed with much improved volume coverage speed, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and radiation dose efficiency. Many innovative CT acquisition techniques have been developed, aiming to enable novel clinical applications, improve diagnostic performance, and reduce radiation dose. This chapter will provide an overview on various advanced data acquisition techniques, including axial scan with large area detector, dynamic or perfusion scan with shuttle mode, helical fast pitch scan on dual-source scanners, helical scan with variable pitch, organ-based tube current modulation, automatic selection of optimal tube potential, ECG-gated cardiac scan, dual-energy and multi-energy scan, and dynamic bowtie filter.

Keywords

Computed tomography CT Multi-detector CT (MDCT) Multi-slice CT 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Drs. James Kofler and Liqiang Ren for helping on some of the figures and Ms. Kris Nunez for preparing the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Achenbach S, Marwan M, Schepis T, Pflederer T, Bruder H, Allmendinger T, Petersilka M, Anders K, Lell M, Kuettner A, Ropers D, Daniel WG, Flohr T. High-pitch spiral acquisition: a new scan mode for coronary CT angiography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2009;3:117–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida IP, Schyns LE, Ollers MC, van Elmpt W, Parodi K, Landry G, Verhaegen F. Dual-energy CT quantitative imaging: a comparison study between twin-beam and dual-source CT scanners. Med Phys. 2017;44:171–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alvarez RE, Macovski A. Energy-selective reconstructions in X-ray computed tomography. Phys Med Biol. 1976;21:733–44.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baturin P, Alivov Y, Molloi S. Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:4117–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bauer RW, Schell B, Beeres M, Wichmann JL, Bodelle B, Vogl TJ, Kerl JM. High-pitch dual-source computed tomography pulmonary angiography in freely breathing patients. J Thorac Imaging. 2012;27:376–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benz DC, Grani C, Moch BH, Mikulicic F, Vontobel J, Fuchs TA, Stehli J, Clerc OF, Possner M, Pazhenkottil AP, Gaemperli O, Buechel RR, Kaufmann PA. Minimized radiation and contrast agent exposure for coronary computed tomography angiography: first clinical experience on a latest generation 256-slice scanner. Acad Radiol. 2016;23:1008–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boone JM, Geraghty EM, Seibert JA, Wootton-Gorges SL. Dose reduction in pediatric CT: a rational approach. Radiology. 2003;228:352–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carmi R, Naveh G, Altman A. Material separation with dual-layer CT. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec. 2005;4:3.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Christner JA, Zavaletta VA, Eusemann CD, Walz-Flannigan AI, McCollough CH. Dose reduction in helical CT: dynamically adjustable z-axis x-ray beam collimation. Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:W49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cormode DP, Roessl E, Thran A, Skajaa T, Gordon RE, Schlomka JP, Fuster V, Fisher EA, Mulder WJ, Proksa R, Fayad ZA. Atherosclerotic plaque composition: analysis with multicolor CT and targeted gold nanoparticles. Radiology. 2010;256:774–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dangelmaier J, Bar-Ness D, Daerr H, Muenzel D, Si-Mohamed S, Ehn S, Fingerle AA, Kimm MA, Kopp FK, Boussel L, Roessl E, Pfeiffer F, Rummeny EJ, Proksa R, Douek P, Noel PB. Experimental feasibility of spectral photon-counting computed tomography with two contrast agents for the detection of endoleaks following endovascular aortic repair. Eur Radiol. 2018;28:3318–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dewey M, Zimmermann E, Laule M, Rutsch W, Hamm B. Three-vessel coronary artery disease examined with 320-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Duan X, Wang J, Christner JA, Leng S, Grant KL, McCollough CH. Dose reduction to anterior surfaces with organ-based tube-current modulation: evaluation of performance in a phantom study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197:689–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faby S, Kuchenbecker S, Sawall S, Simons D, Schlemmer HP, Lell M, Kachelriess M. Performance of today’s dual energy CT and future multi energy CT in virtual non-contrast imaging and in iodine quantification: a simulation study. Med Phys. 2015;42:4349–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Flohr TG, Leng SA, Yu LF, Allmendinger T, Bruder H, Petersilka M, Eusemann CD, Stierstorfer K, Schmidt B, McCollough CH. Dual-source spiral CT with pitch up to 3.2 and 75 ms temporal resolution: image reconstruction and assessment of image quality. Med Phys. 2009;36:5641–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Flohr TG, McCollough CH, Bruder H, Petersilka M, Gruber K, Suss C, Grasruck M, Stierstorfer K, Krauss B, Raupach R, Primak AN, Kuttner A, Achenbach S, Becker C, Kopp A, Ohnesorge BM. First performance evaluation of a dual-source CT (DSCT) system. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:256–68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gandhi D, Crotty DJ, Stevens GM, Schmidt TG. Technical note: phantom study to evaluate the dose and image quality effects of a computed tomography organ-based tube current modulation technique. Med Phys. 2015;42:6572–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gang GJ, Mao A, Wang W, Siewerdsen JH, Mathews A, Kawamoto S, Levinson R, Stayman JW. Dynamic fluence field modulation in computed tomography using multiple aperture devices. Phys Med Biol. 2019;64:105024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Geleijns J, Artells MS, Bruin PW, Matter R, Muramatsu Y, McNitt-Gray MF. Computed tomography dose assessment for a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:3141–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glazebrook KN, Guimaraes LS, Murthy NS, Black DF, Bongartz T, Manek NJ, Leng S, Fletcher JG, McCollough CH. Identification of intraarticular and periarticular uric acid crystals with dual-energy CT: initial evaluation. Radiology. 2011;261:516–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goodsitt MM, Christodoulou EG, Larson SC. Accuracies of the synthesized monochromatic CT numbers and effective atomic numbers obtained with a rapid kVp switching dual energy CT scanner. Med Phys. 2011;38:2222–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gordic S, Morsbach F, Schmidt B, Allmendinger T, Flohr T, Husarik D, Baumueller S, Raupach R, Stolzmann P, Leschka S, Frauenfelder T, Alkadhi H. Ultralow-dose chest computed tomography for pulmonary nodule detection: first performance evaluation of single energy scanning with spectral shaping. Investig Radiol. 2014;49:465–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hein PA, Romano VC, Lembcke A, May J, Rogalla P. Initial experience with a chest pain protocol using 320-slice volume MDCT. Eur Radiol. 2009;19:1148–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hsieh J. Computed tomography: principles, design, artifacts, and recent advances. Bellingham: SPIE Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hsieh SS, Pelc NJ. The feasibility of a piecewise-linear dynamic bowtie filter. Med Phys. 2013;40:031910.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huck SM, Parodi K, Stierstorfer K. First experimental validation of a novel concept for dynamic beam attenuation in CT. In: Fifth computed tomography conference. 2018.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hull NC, Schooler GR, Binkovitz LA, Williamson EE, Araoz PA, Yu L, Young PM. Chest computed tomography angiography in children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Pediatr Radiol. 2018;48:1021–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jakobs TF, Becker CR, Ohnesorge B, Flohr T, Suess C, Schoepf UJ, Reiser MF. Multislice helical CT of the heart with retrospective ECG gating: reduction of radiation exposure by ECG-controlled tube current modulation. Eur Radiol. 2002;12:1081–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnson TR, Krauss B, Sedlmair M, Grasruck M, Bruder H, Morhard D, Fink C, Weckbach S, Lenhard M, Schmidt B, Flohr T, Reiser MF, Becker CR. Material differentiation by dual energy CT: initial experience. Eur Radiol. 2007;17:1510–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kachelriess M, Kalender WA. Electrocardiogram-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond spiral computed tomography scans of the heart. Med Phys. 1998;25:2417–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kappler S, Glasser F, Janssen S, Kraft E, Reinwand M. A research prototype system for quantum-counting clinical CT. Proc SPIE. 2010;7622:70.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim SH, Kamaya A, Willmann JK. CT perfusion of the liver: principles and applications in oncology. Radiology. 2014;272:322–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lell MM, May M, Deak P, Alibek S, Kuefner M, Kuettner A, Kohler H, Achenbach S, Uder M, Radkow T. High-pitch spiral computed tomography: effect on image quality and radiation dose in pediatric chest computed tomography. Investig Radiol. 2011;46:116–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leng S, Rajendran K, Gong H, Zhou W, Halaweish AF, Henning A, Kappler S, Baer M, Fletcher JG, McCollough CH. 150-mu m spatial resolution using photon-counting detector computed tomography technology technical performance and first patient images. Investig Radiol. 2018;53:655–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mao A, Gang GJ, Shyr W, Levinson R, Siewerdsen JH, Kawamoto S, Webster Stayman J. Dynamic fluence field modulation for miscentered patients in computed tomography. J Med imaging. 2018;5:043501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mathews AJ, Tilley S 2nd, Gang G, Kawamoto S, Zbijewski W, Siewerdsen JH, Levinson R, Webster Stayman J. Design of dual multiple aperture devices for dynamical fluence field modulated CT. Conf Proc Int Conf Image Form Xray Comput Tomogr. 2016;2016:29–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Matsumoto S, Yamada Y, Hashimoto M, Okamura T, Yamada M, Yashima F, Hayashida K, Fukuda K, Jinzaki M. CT imaging before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using variable helical pitch scanning and its diagnostic performance for coronary artery disease. Eur Radiol. 2017;27:1963–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McCollough CH, Leng S, Yu L, Fletcher JG. Dual- and multi-energy CT: principles, technical approaches, and clinical applications. Radiology. 2015;276:637–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McCollough CH, Primak AN, Saba O, Bruder H, Stierstorfer K, Raupach R, Suess C, Schmidt B, Ohnesorge BM, Flohr TG. Dose performance of a 64-channel dual-source CT scanner. Radiology. 2007;243:775–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mongan J, Rathnayake S, Fu Y, Gao DW, Yeh BM. Extravasated contrast material in penetrating abdominopelvic trauma: dual-contrast dual-energy CT for improved diagnosis – preliminary results in an animal model. Radiology. 2013;268:738–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mongan J, Rathnayake S, Fu Y, Wang R, Jones EF, Gao DW, Yeh BM. In vivo differentiation of complementary contrast media at dual-energy CT. Radiology. 2012;265:267–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Morhard D, Wirth CD, Fesl G, Schmidt C, Reiser MF, Becker CR, Ertl-Wagner B. Advantages of extended brain perfusion computed tomography: 9.6 cm coverage with time resolved computed tomography-angiography in comparison to standard stroke-computed tomography. Investig Radiol. 2010;45:363–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Muenzel D, Bar-Ness D, Roessl E, Blevis I, Bartels M, Fingerle AA, Ruschke S, Coulon P, Daerr H, Kopp FK, Brendel B, Thran A, Rokni M, Herzen J, Boussel L, Pfeiffer F, Proksa R, Rummeny EJ, Douek P, Noel PB. Spectral photon-counting CT: initial experience with dual-contrast agent K-edge colonography. Radiology. 2017;283:723–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ohnesorge B, Flohr T, Becker C, Kopp AF, Schoepf UJ, Baum U, Knez A, Klingenbeck-Regn K, Reiser MF. Cardiac imaging by means of electrocardiographically gated multisection spiral CT: initial experience. Radiology. 2000;217:564–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Petersilka M, Bruder H, Krauss B, Stierstorfer K, Flohr TG. Technical principles of dual source CT. Eur J Radiol. 2008;68:362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pourmorteza A, Symons R, Sandfort V, Mallek M, Fuld MK, Henderson G, Jones EC, Malayeri AA, Folio LR, Bluemke DA. Abdominal imaging with contrast-enhanced photon-counting CT: first human experience. Radiology. 2016;279:239–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Primak AN, Fletcher JG, Vrtiska TJ, Dzyubak OP, Lieske JC, Jackson ME, Williams JC Jr, McCollough CH. Noninvasive differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones using dual-energy CT. Acad Radiol. 2007;14:1441–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Qu M, Ehman E, Fletcher JG, Huprich JE, Hara AK, Silva AC, Farrugia G, Limburg P, McCollough CH. Toward biphasic computed tomography (CT) enteric contrast: material classification of luminal bismuth and mural iodine in a small-bowel phantom using dual-energy CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2012;36:554–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rassouli N, Etesami M, Dhanantwari A, Rajiah P. Detector-based spectral CT with a novel dual-layer technology: principles and applications. Insights into imaging. 2017;8:589–98.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reiner CS, Goetti R, Eberli D, Klotz E, Boss A, Pfammatter T, Frauenfelder T, Moch H, Sulser T, Alkadhi H. CT perfusion of renal cell carcinoma: impact of volume coverage on quantitative analysis. Investig Radiol. 2012;47:33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rybicki FJ, Otero HJ, Steigner ML, Vorobiof G, Nallamshetty L, Mitsouras D, Ersoy H, Mather RT, Judy PF, Cai T, Coyner K, Schultz K, Whitmore AG, Di Carli MF. Initial evaluation of coronary images from 320-detector row computed tomography. Int J Card Imaging. 2008;24:535–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saba L, Porcu M, Schmidt B, Flohr T. Dual energy CT: basic principles. In: De Cecco C, Laghi A, Schoepf U, Meinel F, editors. Dual energy CT in oncology. Switzerland; Springer. 2015.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Scheffel H, Alkadhi H, Leschka S, Plass A, Desbiolles L, Guber I, Krauss T, Gruenenfelder J, Genoni M, Luescher TF, Marincek B, Stolzmann P. Low-dose CT coronary angiography in the step-and-shoot mode: diagnostic performance. Heart. 2008;94:1132–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Scheffel H, Stolzmann P, Frauenfelder T, Schertler T, Desbiolles L, Leschka S, Marincek B, Alkadhi H. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced computed tomography for the detection of urinary stone disease. Investig Radiol. 2007;42:823–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Siebert E, Bohner G, Dewey M, Masuhr F, Hoffmann KT, Mews J, Engelken F, Bauknecht HC, Diekmann S, Klingebiel R. 320-slice CT neuroimaging: initial clinical experience and image quality evaluation. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:561–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sorantin E, Riccabona M, Stucklschweiger G, Guss H, Fotter R. Experience with volumetric (320 rows) pediatric CT. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:1091–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stayman JW, Tilley II S. Model-based multi-material decomposition using spatial-spectral CT filters. In: International conference on image formation in X-Ray computed tomography. 2018.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stolzmann P, Leschka S, Scheffel H, Krauss T, Desbiolles L, Plass A, Genoni M, Flohr TG, Wildermuth S, Marincek B, Alkadhi H. Dual-source CT in step-and-shoot mode: noninvasive coronary angiography with low radiation dose. Radiology. 2008a;249:71–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stolzmann P, Scheffel H, Rentsch K, Schertler T, Frauenfelder T, Leschka S, Sulser T, Marincek B, Alkadhi H. Dual-energy computed tomography for the differentiation of uric acid stones: ex vivo performance evaluation. Urol Res. 2008b;36:133–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Symons R, Krauss B, Sahbaee P, Cork TE, Lakshmanan MN, Bluemke DA, Pourmorteza A. Photon-counting CT for simultaneous imaging of multiple contrast agents in the abdomen: an in vivo study. Med Phys. 2017;44:5120–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Szczykutowicz TP, Mistretta CA. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography: part I. system design and simulation framework. Med Phys. 2013;40:021905.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Taguchi K, Iwanczyk JS. Vision 20/20: single photon counting x-ray detectors in medical imaging. Med Phys. 2013;40:100901.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Takahashi N, Hartman RP, Vrtiska TJ, Kawashima A, Primak AN, Dzyubak OP, Mandrekar JN, Fletcher JG, McCollough CH. Dual-energy CT iodine-subtraction virtual unenhanced technique to detect urinary stones in an iodine-filled collecting system: a phantom study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:1169–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Taylor S, Litmanovich DE, Shahrzad M, Bankier AA, Gevenois PA, Tack D. Organ-based tube current modulation: are women’s breasts positioned in the reduced-dose zone? Radiology. 2015;274:260–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tivnan M, Tilley S, Stayman JW. Physical modeling and performance of spatial-spectral filters for CT material decomposition. Proc SPIE. 2019;10948:109481A.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tzedakis A, Damilakis J, Perisinakis K, Stratakis J, Gourtsoyiannis N. The effect of z overscanning on patient effective dose from multidetector helical computed tomography examinations. Med Phys. 2005;32:1621–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Weber NM, Koo CW, Yu L, Bartholmai BJ, Halaweish AF, McCollough CH, Fletcher JG. Breathe new life into your chest CT exams: using advanced acquisition and postprocessing techniques. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2019;48:152–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weustink AC, Mollet NR, Pugliese F, Meijboom WB, Nieman K, Heijenbrok-Kal MH, Flohr TG, Neefjes LA, Cademartiri F, de Feyter PJ, Krestin GP. Optimal electrocardiographic pulsing windows and heart rate: effect on image quality and radiation exposure at dual-source coronary CT angiography. Radiology. 2008;248:792–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Willemink MJ, Persson M, Pourmorteza A, Pelc NJ, Fleischmann D. Photon-counting CT: technical principles and clinical prospects. Radiology. 2018;289:293–312.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Winklehner A, Goetti R, Baumueller S, Karlo C, Schmidt B, Raupach R, Flohr T, Frauenfelder T, Alkadhi H. Automated attenuation-based tube potential selection for thoracoabdominal computed tomography angiography: improved dose effectiveness. Investig Radiol. 2011;46:767–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Youn SW, Kim JH, Weon YC, Kim SH, Han MK, Bae HJ. Perfusion CT of the brain using 40-mm-wide detector and toggling table technique for initial imaging of acute stroke. Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191:W120–W26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yu L, Bruesewitz MR, Thomas KB, Fletcher JG, Kofler JM, McCollough CH. Optimal tube potential for radiation dose reduction in pediatric CT: principles, clinical implementations, and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2011;31:835–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yu L, Fletcher JG, Grant KL, Carter RE, Hough DM, Barlow JM, Vrtiska TJ, Williamson EE, Young PM, Goss BC, Shiung M, Leng S, Raupach R, Schmidt B, Flohr T, McCollough CH. Automatic selection of tube potential for radiation dose reduction in vascular and contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;201:W297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yu L, Li H, Fletcher JG, McCollough CH. Automatic selection of tube potential for radiation dose reduction in CT: a general strategy. Med Phys. 2010;37:234–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yu L, Ren L, Li Z, Leng S, McCollough CH. Dual-source multienergy CT with triple or quadruple x-ray beams. J Med imaging. 2018;5:033502.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yu Z, Leng S, Jorgensen SM, Li Z, Gutjahr R, Chen B, Halaweish AF, Kappler S, Yu L, Ritman EL, McCollough CH. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array. Phys Med Biol. 2016;61:1572–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zou Y, Pan X, Xia D, Wang G. PI-line-based image reconstruction in helical cone-beam computed tomography with a variable pitch. Med Phys. 2005;32:2639–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations