Advertisement

Active Learning Reform in the Maldives: What Works for Whom Under What Circumstances

  • Rhonda Di BiaseEmail author
Chapter
Part of the South Asian Education Policy, Research, and Practice book series (SAEPRP)

Abstract

Given the widespread promotion of learner-centred pedagogies globally, this chapter provides an analysis of the conditions under which teacher can implement active learning pedagogy in the Maldives. This study used design-based research, a participatory, interventionist approach, to investigate the enabling conditions for pedagogical reform in a local island school. The intervention was developed to promote innovation through a structured framework balancing teacher instruction and active learning methods. Data on teachers’ practice were collected detailing the factors influencing teachers’ use of the model. The findings were categorised across three broad areas: the clarity and accessibility of the model; teachers’ professional learning and the need for school-based support; and at the school level, the need to develop a reform-minded school community.

References

  1. Alexander, R. J. (2015). Teaching and learning for all? The quality imperative revisited. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 250–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.11.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altinyelken, H. K. (2010). Pedagogical renewal in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Uganda. Comparative Education, 46(2), 151–171.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03050061003775454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altinyelken, H. K. (2011). Student-centred pedagogy in Turkey: Conceptualisations, interpretations and practices. Journal of Education Policy, 26(2), 137–160.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2010.504886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altinyelken, H. K. (2012). A converging pedagogy in the developing world? Insights from Uganda and Turkey. In A. Verger, M. Novelli, & H. K. Altinyelken (Eds.), Global education policy and international development: New agendas, issues and policies (pp. 201–221). London: Bloomsbury. Retrieved from http://dare.uva.nl/record/1/390543.
  5. Asim, S., Chase, R. S., Dar, A., & Schmillen, A. (2017). Improving learning outcomes in South Asia: Findings from a decade of impact evaluations. World Bank Research Observer, 32(1), 75–106.  https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lkw006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ball, D. L., & Cohen, D. K. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In G. Sykes & L. Darling-Hammond (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 3–32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, A. M. (2007). Beyond the polarization of pedagogy: Models of classroom practice in Tanzanian primary schools. Comparative Education, 43(2), 273–294. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29727829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brock, A. (2009). Moving mountains stone by stone: Reforming rural education in China. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(5), 454–462.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2009.04.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brock, C., & Crossley, M. (2013). Revisiting scale, comparative research and education in small states. Comparative Education, 49, 388–403.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2013.803782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, J., & Isaacs, D. (2005). The World Café: Shaping our futures through conversations that matter (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Crossley, M. (2010). Context matters in educational research and international development: Learning from the small states experience. Prospects, 40(4), 421–429.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-010-9172-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crossley, M., Bray, M., & Packer, S. (2011). Education in small states: Policies and priorities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
  14. Design-Based Research Collective. (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5–8. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3699927.
  15. Di Biase, R. (2009). Implementing active learning reform in the Maldives: Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Educational Reform, 18(4), 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Di Biase, R. (2015a). Learning from a small state’s experience: Acknowledging the importance of context in implementing learner-centred pedagogy. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 14(1), 1–20. Retrieved from http://openjournals.library.usyd.edu.au/index.php/IEJ/article/view/6940.
  17. Di Biase, R. (2015b). Policy, pedagogy, and priorities: Exploring stakeholder perspectives on active learning in the Maldives. Prospects, 45(2), 213–229.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-015-9346-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Di Biase, R. (2017). Mediating global reforms locally: A study of the enabling conditions for promoting active learning in a Maldivian Island school. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 16(1), 8–22.Google Scholar
  19. Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  20. Ginsburg, M. (2010). Improving educational quality through active-learning pedagogies: A comparison of five case studies. Educational Research, 1(3), 62–74.Google Scholar
  21. Gordon, M. (2009). The misuses and effective uses of constructivist teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(6), 737–746.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600903357058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hardman, F., Abd-Kadir, J., Agg, C., Migwi, J., Ndambuku, J., & Smith, F. (2009). Changing pedagogical practice in Kenyan primary schools: The impact of school-based training. Comparative Education, 45(1), 65–86.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03050060802661402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hufton, N., & Elliott, J. (2000). Motivation to learn: The pedagogical nexus in the Russian school—Some implications for transnational research and policy borrowing. Educational Studies, 26(1), 115–136.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690097772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jónsdóttir, S. R., & Macdonald, A. (2013). Pedagogy and settings in innovation education. In L. V. Shavinina (Ed.), The Routledge international handbook of innovation education (pp. 273–287). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Leu, E., & Price-Rom, A. (2006). Quality of education and teacher learning: A review of the literature. Educational Quality Improvement Project (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from http://www.equip123.net/docs/E1-QualityEdLitReview.pdf.
  26. Leyendecker, R., Ottevanger, W., & Van den Akker, J. J. H. (2008). Curricula, examinations, and assessment in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/abs/10.1596/978-0-8213-7348-4.
  27. McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. (2012). Conducting educational design research. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. McNair, S. (2009). Child friendly schools perception study. Malé, Maldives: UNICEF, Maldives Country Office.Google Scholar
  29. Megahed, N., Ginsburg, M., Abdellah, A., & Zohry, A. (2012). The quest for educational quality in Egypt. Quality and Qualities, 48–74. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-6091-951-0_3.
  30. Mohammed, R. F., & Harlech-Jones, B. (2008). The fault is in ourselves: Looking at “failures in implementation.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 38(1), 39–51.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920701420825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mohammad, R. F., & Kumari, R. (2007). Effective use of textbooks: A neglected aspect of education in Pakistan. Journal of Education for International Development, 3(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  32. Mtika, P., & Gates, P. (2010). Developing learner-centred education among secondary trainee teachers in Malawi: The dilemma of appropriation and application. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(4), 396–404.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2009.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Sullivan, M. (2004). The reconceptualisation of learner-centred approaches: A Namibian case study. International Journal of Educational Development, 24(6), 585–602.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0738-0593(03)00018-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schoenfeld, A. H. (2009). Bridging the cultures of educational research and design. Educational Designer, 1(2), 1–23. Retrieved from http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume1/issue2/article5/index.htm.
  35. Schweisfurth, M. (2011). Learner-centred education in developing country contexts: From solution to problem? International Journal of Educational Development, 31(5), 425–432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2011.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schweisfurth, M. (2012). Learner-centred education and teacher professionalism at the local-global nexus. In T. Seddon & J. Levin (Eds.), Educators, professionalism and politics: Global transitions, national spaces, and professional projects (pp. 172–183). Hoboken: Taylor & Francis. Retrieved from http://unimelb.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1101396.
  37. Schweisfurth, M. (2013). Learner-centred education in international perspective: Whose pedagogy for whose development? Education, poverty and international development. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schweisfurth, M. (2015). Learner-centred pedagogy: Towards a post-2015 agenda for teaching and learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 259–266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.10.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shafeega, F., Ahmed, Z., Abdulla, S., Shafeeg, F., George, P., & Austin, D. (2005). Child centred programmes in the primary schools: A study of key and replicable features. Malé, Maldives: Maldvies College of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  40. Shareef, A. (2007). The implementation of the child friendly schools program in the Maldives (MEd thesis). University of East Anglia.Google Scholar
  41. Shareef, A. (2011). School-based professional development in the Maldives: What are we achieving?. Malé, Maldives: Centre for Continuing Education.Google Scholar
  42. Shareef, K. (2008). Mentoring relationships for collaborative professional development practices in Maldivian primary schools (MEd thesis). University of Waikato.Google Scholar
  43. Shiuna, M., & Sodiq, A. (2013). Improving education in the Maldives: Shareholder perspectives on the Maldivian education sector. International Journal of Small Economies, 4(1), 23–38. Retrieved from www.maldivesresearch.org.
  44. The World Bank. (2014). Youth in the Maldives: Shaping a new future for young women and men through engagement and empowerment. Sri Lanka Maldives Country Unit: Social Development Unit, The World Bank.Google Scholar
  45. UNDP. (2014). Maldives Human Development Report 2014. Malé, Maldives: The Ministry of Finance and Treasury and the United Nations Development Programme in the Maldives.Google Scholar
  46. UNICEF. (2004). Child friendly schools in East Asia and the Pacific: How friendly can they be?. Bangkok, Thailand: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  47. UNICEF. (2010). Research report for the master planning of CFS advocacy campaign. Malé, Maldives: UNICEF, Maldives Country Office.Google Scholar
  48. UNICEF. (2014). Longitudinal study on the impact of curriculum reforms (2012–2013). Malé, Maldives: UNICEF, Maldives Country Office.Google Scholar
  49. Westbrook, J., Durrani, N., Brown, R., & Orr, D. (2013). Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. London, UK: UK Department of International Development. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/305154/Pedagogy-curriculum-teaching-practices-education.pdf.
  50. Wheatcroft, L. (2004). Evaluation of the quality learning environment in the priority Schools project. Malé, Maldives: UNICEF Maldives Country Office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations