Advertisement

Uses of Animals in Early Sociology

  • Salla Tuomivaara
Chapter
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series book series (PMAES)

Abstract

This chapter tells about the main uses of animals in early sociology. It explores what kinds of sociological questions the appearances of animals are connected to in the texts of Durkheim and Westermarck and how these different animals are used in their theory construction. The chapter focuses on the central role of animal in defining human and humanity. As Westermarck considers humans as one animal species and Durkheim emphasized the qualitative difference between animals and humans, the human–animal comparisons both use take very different shapes and aim towards different ends.

Keywords

Human–animal boundary Human–animal dualism Human–animal comparisons Human social behaviour Morality Religious beliefs Taboos 

References

  1. Allardt, Erik (2000) Edward Westermarck: A Sociologist Relating Nature and Culture. Acta Sociologica, 43:4, 299–306.Google Scholar
  2. Bauman, Zygmunt (1991) Modernity and ambivalence. Polity Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Beirne, Piers (2002) Criminology and animal studies: a sociological view. Society & Animals 10:4, 381–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borch, Christian (2006) The Exclusion of the Crowd. The Destiny of a Sociological Figure of the Irrational. European Journal of Social Theory 9:1, 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, Esther (1994) Animals in medieval perceptions: the image of the ubiquitous other. In Manning, Aubrey & Serpell, James (eds.) Animals and human society: changing perspectives. Routledge, London, 59–80.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, Ira (2003) General Editor’s Foreword. In Emirbayer (ed.) Émile Durkheim: Sociologist of Modernity. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Coleman, Francis X. J. (2016) Neither Angel nor Beast: The Life and Work of Blaise Pascal. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  8. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Eighth edition, 1990. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  9. Corbey, Raymond (2005) The Metaphysics of Apes. Negotiating the Animal–Human Boundary. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Crist, Eileen (1999) Images of Animals. Anthropomorphism and Animal Mind. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  11. Descola, Philippe (1996) Constructing natures; symbolic ecology and social practice. In Descola & Pálsson (eds.) Nature and society: anthropological perspectives. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  12. de Waal, Frans (2001) The Ape and The Sushi Master. Cultural reflections of a primatologist. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  13. de Waal, Frans (2002) Apes from Venus: Bonobos and human social evolution. In de Waal (ed.) Tree of Origin. What primate behaviour can tell us about human social evolution. Second printing. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  14. de Waal, Frans (2016) Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? Granta Books, London.Google Scholar
  15. Dunbar, R.I.M. (1993) What’s in a classification? In Cavalieri & Singer (eds.) The great ape project. Fourth Estate, London.Google Scholar
  16. Durkheim, Émile [1893 (1994)] The Division of Labour in Society. The Macmillan Press Ltd, London. First published 1984. Reprinted 1988, 1989, 1993, 1994. Originally published in French 1893 (De la division du travail social).Google Scholar
  17. Durkheim, Émile [1895a (1982)] The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and its Method. Edited with an introduction by Steven Lukes. The Free Press, New York. Originally published in French 1895 (Les règles de la méthode sociologique).Google Scholar
  18. Durkheim, Émile [1895b (2002)] Les règles de la méthode sociologique. Originally published in 1895. This edition published in “Les classiques des sciences sociales”. Une collection développée en collaboration avec la Bibliothèque Paul-Émile-Boulet de l’Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Édition électronique réalisée 2001. Édition complétée le 15 février 2002 à Chicoutimi, Québec. http://www.philo-online.com/TEXTES/DURKHEIM%20Emile%20Les%20regles%20de%20la%20methode%20sociologique.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
  19. Durkheim, Émile [1897a (1982)] Marxism and Sociology. The Materialist Conception of History. (Review of Antonio Labriola, ‘Essais sur la conception materialiste de l’histoire’, Revue philosophique, 44, 1897.) In Durkheim (1982) The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and its Method. The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Durkheim, Émile [1897b (2005)] Suicide. A Study in Sociology. Translated by John A. Spaulding and George Simpson. Edited with an introduction by George Simpson. Routledge Classics, London & New York. Originally published in French in 1897. This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. http://14.139.206.50:8080/jspui/bitstream/1/1969/1/Durkheim,%20Emile%20-%20Suicide%20A%20Study%20in%20Sociology%202005.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2017.
  21. Durkheim, Émile [1903 (1982)] Sociology and the Social Sciences. (Sociologie et sciences sociales. With Paul Fauconnet. Revue philosophique, 55, 1903.) In Durkheim (1982) The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and its Method. The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Durkheim, Émile [1912a (1915)] The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. George Allen & Unwind Ltd, London. Translated from the French by Joseph Ward Swain. Originally published in French 1912 (Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41360/41360-h/41360-h.htm. Accessed 30 May 2017.
  23. Durkheim, Émile [1912b (1971)] The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. George Allen & Unwind Ltd, London. Originally published in French 1912 (Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse).Google Scholar
  24. Durkheim, Émile [1912c (1976)] The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. With new introduction by Robert Nisbet. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London. Originally published in French 1912 (Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse).Google Scholar
  25. Durkheim, Émile [1912d (2001)] The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. A new translation by Carol Cosman. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Originally published in French 1912.Google Scholar
  26. Durkheim, Émile [1912e (2008a)] Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Le système totémique en Australie. Livre I: Questions préliminaires. Livre 1er (pp. 1–138 de l’édition papier). Paris, Les Presses universitaires de France, 1968, cinquième édition. Originally published in French in 1912. This edition published in Collection “Bibliothèque de philosophie contemporaine. Édition électronique. Édition complétée le 15 février 2002 par Jean-Marie Tremblay à Chicoutimi, Québec, revue, corrigée le 28 juin 2008. http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/Durkheim_emile/formes_vie_religieuse/formes_elementaires_1.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
  27. Durkheim, Émile [1912f (2008b)] Les forms élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Le système totémique en Australie. Livre II: Les croyances élémentaires. Livre 2e de 3 (pp. 139–424 de l’édition papier). Paris, Les Presses universitaires de France, 1968, cinquième edition. Originally published in French in 1912. This edition published in Collection “Bibliothèque de philosophie contemporaine. Édition électronique 2001. Édition complétée le 15 février 2002 par Jean-Marie Tremblay à Chicoutimi, Québec, revue, corrigée le 28 juin 2008. http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/Durkheim_emile/formes_vie_religieuse/formes_elementaires_2.pdf. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
  28. Durkheim, Émile [1912g (2008c)] Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Le système totémique en Australie. Livre III: Les principales attitudes rituelles. Livre 3e de 3. (pp. 425–647 de l’édition papier). Paris, Les Presses universitaires de France, 1968, cinquième édition. Originally published in French in 1912. This edition published in Collection “Bibliothèque de philosophie contemporaine. Édition électronique 2001. Édition complétée le 15 février 2002 par Jean-Marie Tremblay à Chicoutimi, Québec, revue, corrigée le 28 juin 2008. http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/Durkheim_emile/formes_vie_religieuse/formes_elementaires_3.pdf. Accessed 6 Sep 2017.
  29. Durkheim, Émile [1914 (1973)] The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Conditions. Reprinted from “The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Conditions,” translated by Charles Blend, in Emile Durkheim, 1958–1917, edited by Kurt H. Wolff. Originally published as “Le Dualisme de la nature humaine et ses conditions sociales,” in Scientia 15 (1914): 206–21. In Durkheim (1973) On Morality and Society – Selected writings. The Heritage of Sociology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 149–163.Google Scholar
  30. Durkheim, Émile [1951 (2009)] Sociology and Philosophy. Translated by D.F. Pocock. With an Introduction by J.G. Peristiany. First published in English in 1953 by Cohen and West Ltd. Routledge, New York. Originally published in French in 1951 (Sociologie et philosophie). http://14.139.206.50:8080/jspui/bitstream/1/1968/1/Durkheim,%20Emile%20-%20Sociology%20and%20Philosophy%202010.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2017.
  31. Fiddes, Nick (1991) Meat. A Natural Symbol. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  32. Fletcher, Ronald (1980) Sociology. Its Nature, Scope, and Elements. Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  33. Franklin, Adrian (1999) Animals and Modern Cultures. A Sociology of Human–Animal Relations in Modernity. Sage, London.Google Scholar
  34. Franklin, Adrian (2002) Nature and social theory. Sage, London.Google Scholar
  35. Haraway, Donna (2003) The Companion Species Manifesto. Dogs, people and significant otherness. Prickly Paradigm Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  36. Horigan, Stephen (1988) Nature and culture in western discourses. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  37. Ihanus, Juhani (1990) Kadonneet alkuperät. Edvard Westermarckin sosiopsykologinen ajattelu. Kirjayhtymä, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  38. Ingold, Tim (1988) Introduction. In Ingold, Tim (ed.) What is an animal? Unwin Hyman, London, 1–16.Google Scholar
  39. Järvikoski, Timo (1996a) The Relation of Nature and Society in Marx & Durkheim. Acta Sociologica, 39:1.Google Scholar
  40. Järvikoski, Timo (1996b) Sociology and ’nature’. In Konttinen (ed.) Green Moves, Political Stalemates. Sociological Perspectives on the Environment. Annales universitatis Turkuensis, B215, Turku, 16–24.Google Scholar
  41. Kehoe, Laura (2016) Mysterious new behaviour found in our closest living relatives. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/mysterious-chimpanzee-behaviour-may-be-evidence-of-sacred-rituals-55512. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
  42. Kühl, Hjalmar; Kalan, Ammie K. et al. (2016) Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing. Nature, Scientific Reports 6. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep22219. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
  43. Latour, Bruno (1993) We Have Never Been Modern. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Originally published in French 1991.Google Scholar
  44. Lepenies, Wolf (1988) Between Literature and Science: The Rise of Sociology. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1962) Le Totémism aujourd’hui. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.Google Scholar
  46. Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1982) The Work of Edward Westermarck. In Timothy Stroup (ed.) Edward Westermarck: Essays on His Life and Works. Acta Philosophica Fennica vol 34: Societas Philosophica Fennica, Helsinki. Originally published in French in Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 129, nos. 1 & 2–3 (January–June 1945).Google Scholar
  47. Lukes, Steven (1982) Introduction. In Durkheim (1982) The Rules of Sociological Method and Selected Texts on Sociology and its Method. The Free Press, New York. 1–27.Google Scholar
  48. Lukes, Steven (1985) Émile Durkheim – His Life and Work. A Historical and Critical Study. Stanford University Press, Stanford. First published in 1973.Google Scholar
  49. Matsuzawa, Tetsuro (1996) Chimpanzee intelligence in nature and in captivity: isomorphism of symbol use and tool use. In McGrew, Marchant & Nishida (eds.) Great Ape Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  50. Midgley, Mary (1989) Are you an animal? In Langley, Gill (ed.) Animal experimentation: the consensus changes. Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1–18.Google Scholar
  51. Midgley, Mary (1994) Bridge-building at last. In Manning, Aubrey & Serpell, James (eds.) Animals and human society: changing perspectives. Routledge, London, 188–194.Google Scholar
  52. Midgley, Mary (2002) Beast and Man. Routledge, New York. Originally published in 1979.Google Scholar
  53. Oxford Dictionaries. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/. Accessed 5 Sep 2017.
  54. Pascal, Blaise (1854) (?) Pensées. Et un Index complet par Charles Louandre. Charpentier, Paris.Google Scholar
  55. Pascal, Blaise (2005) Pensées. Edited and translated by Roger Ariew. Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  56. Simpson, George (2005) Editor’s Introduction. The Aetiology of Suicide. In Durkheim [1897] (2005) Suicide. A Study in Sociology. Routledge Classics, London & New York. http://14.139.206.50:8080/jspui/bitstream/1/1969/1/Durkheim,%20Emile%20-%20Suicide%20A%20Study%20in%20Sociology%202005.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2017.
  57. Smith, Adam (2002) The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Edited by Knud Haakonssen. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Originally published in 1759.Google Scholar
  58. Spencer, Herbert (1912) The Principles of Sociology. In three volumes. Vol. I. Third edition. D. Appleton and company, London and New York. Originally published in 1876. http://books.ebooklibrary.org/members.7/oca/p/principlesofsoci01spenuoft.pdf. Accessed 26 Aug 2017.
  59. Strum, S.S. & Latour, Bruno (1987) Redefining the social link: from baboons to humans. Social Science Information 26:4, 783–802.Google Scholar
  60. Taylor, Nik (2012) Animals, Mess, Method: Post-humanism, Sociology and Animal studies. In Birke & Hockenhull (Eds.) Crossing Boundaries: Investigating Human-Animal Relationships. Brill.Google Scholar
  61. Thomas, Keith (1983) Man and the natural world. A history of the modern sensibility. Pantheon Books, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Udehn, Lars (1996) The Limits of Public Choice: A Sociological Critique of the Economic Theory of Politics. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  63. Vargas, Eduardo Viana, Bruno Latour, Bruno Karsenti, Frédérique Aït-Touati, Louise Salmon, Amaleena Damle & Matei Candea (2008) The Debate between Tarde and Durkheim. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 26:5, 761–777.Google Scholar
  64. Westermarck, Edward [1891a (1921)] The history of human marriage. Vol. 1. 5th ed. Rewritten. Macmillan and Co, London. First edition 1891.Google Scholar
  65. Westermarck, Edward [1891b (1925)] The history of human marriage. Vol. 3. 5th ed. Rewritten. Macmillan and Co, London. First edition 1891.Google Scholar
  66. Westermarck, Edward (1906a) The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. Vol. 1. Macmillan and co., London.Google Scholar
  67. Westermarck, Edward [1906b (1924)] The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. Vol. 1. Second edition. Macmillan and co., London. First edition 1906.Google Scholar
  68. Westermarck, Edward (1908a) The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. Vol. 2. Macmillan and co., London.Google Scholar
  69. Westermarck, Edward [1908b (1917)] The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. Vol. 2. Second edition. Macmillan and co., London. First edition 1908.Google Scholar
  70. Westermarck, Edward [1908c (1926)] The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas. Vol. 2. Second edition. Macmillan and co. Ltd, London. First edition 1908.Google Scholar
  71. Westermarck, Edward (1932a) Early beliefs and their social influence. Macmillan and Co., London.Google Scholar
  72. Westermarck, Edward [1932b (2010)] Ethical Relativity. Routledge, Oxfordshire. The International Library of Philosophy. Originally published in London by Kegan Paul in 1932.Google Scholar
  73. Westermarck, Edward (1939) Christianity and morals. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., London.Google Scholar
  74. Willis, Roy (1994) Introduction. In Willis, Roy (ed.) Signifying animals. Human meaning in the natural world. One World Archaeology: 16. Routledge, London. Originally published 1990.Google Scholar
  75. Wright, Georg Henrik von (1982) The Origin and Development of Westermarck’s Moral Philosophy. In Stroup, Timothy (ed.) Edward Westermarck: Essays on his life and works. Acta Philosophica Fennica vol 34: Societas Philosophica Fennica, Helsinki.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salla Tuomivaara
    • 1
  1. 1.HelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations