Applying Mixed Methods Research to Healthcare Simulation

  • Timothy C. GuettermanEmail author
  • Michael D. Fetters


Mixed methods has the potential to add values to simulation research by informing healthcare simulations, developing assessments and measures, and evaluating the effectiveness of simulations. However, it seems under-utilized relative to other single methodology designs. This chapter provides an introduction to mixed methods in simulation research and evaluation. We introduce mixed methods and cover major designs. Each form of research brings unique strengths. We highlight the integration of qualitative and quantitative research as a central feature of mixed methods and discuss integration strategies. To illustrate the application of mixed methods to simulation, we discuss studies that have used mixed methods to: (1) evaluate simulations by integrating qualitative and quantitative data, (2) use qualitative methods to develop simulations and its features, and (3) to develop assessments and surveys for use in simulation research, such as developing models of learner experiences. Finally, we provide recommended criteria that apply to writing and reviewing for publication or funding proposals.


Mixed methods Qualitative research Quantitative research Evaluation Health simulation Assessment 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Creighton UniversityOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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