Advertisement

Shock

  • Mario Bosco
  • Fernando Alemanno
Chapter

Abstract

Pathogenesis of shock and its treatment are considered. We warn against the excessive use of catecholamines (apart from septic shock).

Keywords

Shock Shock metabolic disturbances Shock therapy Plasma expanders Lytic cocktail Catecholamines Vasodilators Plasma filtration 

References

  1. 1.
    Selye H. A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature. 1936;138(3479):32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blalock A. Mechanism and treatment of experimental shock, I: shock following hemorrhage. Arch Surg. 1927;15(5):762–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blalock A. Experimental shock: the cause of the low blood pressure produced by muscle injury. Arch Surg. 1930;20(6):959–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blalock A. The Alfred Blalock Papers: letter dated June 9, 1930. Located at: The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blalock A. Shock: further studies with particular reference to the effects of hemorrhage. Arch Surg. 1934;29(5):837–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cannon WB. Traumatic shock. New York: D. Appleton & Co; 1923.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cannon WB. Studies in experimental traumatic shock, IV: evidence of a toxic factor in wound shock. Arch Surg. 1922;4(1):1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cannon WB. The Walter B. Cannon Papers: letter dated May 1, 1934. Located at: The Countway Library Rare Books and Special Collections of the Harvard Medical School, Boston.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cannon WB. The wisdom of the body, vol. 184. New York: W.W. Norton & Co; 1932. p. 864.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laborit H. Le vie antérieure. Paris: Grasset; 1989.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laborit H. L’Anesthesie facilitée par le synergies medicamentoses. Paris: Masson et Cie; 1951.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laborit H, Huguenard P. L’hibernation artificielle par moyens pharmacodynamiques et physiques. Presse Med. 1951;59:1329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Laborit H, Huguenard P, Allaume R. Un nouvou stabilisateur vegetatif : le 4560 RP (chloropromazine). Presse méd. 1952;60(10):206–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carlon CA, Cavalloni L. Importanza dei riflessi neurovegetativi durante narcosi e nella genesi della malattia postoperatoria. Comunicato alla “Società Triveneta di Chirurgia” ed alla “Sez. Alta Italia della Soc. Ital. di Anestesiologia”, il 21/12/1952. Acta Anaesth. IV(1) Gennaio-Febbraio 1953.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aiazzi Mancini M, Donatelli L. Trattato di farmacologia. Milano: Vallardi Editore; 1968.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ciocatto E. La Neuroleptoanalgesia. In: Ciocatto E, editor. Lezioni di Anestesiologia e Rianimazione. Cap. 7. Torino: Cortina Editore; 1977. p. 147–54.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Castro G, Mundeleer P. Anesthésie sans sommeil: “Neuroleptoanalgesie”. Acta Chir Belg. 1959;58:689–93.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    De Castro G, Mundeleer P. Anesthésie sans barbituriques. La neuroleptoanalgésie. Anesth Analg. 1959;16:1022.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    De Castro G, Mundeleer P. Dehydrobenzoperidol et phentanyl: Due anesthésiques novoux qui appartent de nouvelle possibilities à la neuroleptonalgésie. In: Symposium sur la neuroleptoanalgésie dans le cadre du Congrès Europeen d’Anesthesiologie à Vienne le 5 septembre 1962.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gasparetto A. Dalla rianimazione alle terapie intensive. In: Gasparetto A, Gritti G, editors. La rianimazione polivalente. Padova: Tipografia “La Garangola”. p. 1976.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Imperati L, D’Errico G, Ruggiero A. Ricerche sul trauma operatorio quale fattore di squasso: il potere colinesterasico del siero sullo squasso nervoso. G Ital Chir. 1946;2:493.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tonelli L, Pesce A. Le variazioni della colinesterasi serica nel decorso postoperatorio ed il loro significato nel problema patogenetico dello shock. Policlinico-Sez Chir. 1954;61:13.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schachter RJ. Use of cholinestherase in shock. Am J Phys. 1945;143:552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Amato A. Basi anatomiche ed elementi fisiopatogenetici e terapeutici degli stati di Shock. Supplemeto alla Sinossi di Traumatologia di Guerra e Chirurgia d’urgenza. Firenze: Scuola di Sanità Militare; 1966.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Novelli GP. Novelle vedute sulla etiopatogenesi dello shock. Acta Anaesthesiol. 1964;XV:625–74.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shoemaker WC, Montgomery ES, Kapla E, Elwyn DH. Physiologic patterns in surviving and non surviving shock patients. Use of sequentials cardiorespiratory variables in defining criteria for therapeutics goals and early warning of death. Arch Surg. 1973;106:630.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gasparetto A, Novelli GP. Aspetti bioumorali dello shock. Acta Anaesth Ital. 1979;30:943–9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Candiani A, Corbucci GC, Montanari G, Crimi G, Gasparetto A. Sistemi mitocondriali e shock. Atti del simposio “Le nuove frontiere della rianimazione”. Roma 4–5 ottobre 1982.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Candiani A. Aspetti emodinamici ed ossiforici dello shock (settico e cardiogeno). Min Anest. 1979;45:536.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Corbucci GC, Candiani A, Brancadoro D, Forastiere EMA, Gasparetto A. Antiossidanti e shock. Acta Anaes It. 1983;34(5):667–70.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vaschetto R, Navalesi P, Clemente N, et al. Osteopontin induces soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor production and release. Minerva Anestesiol. 2015;81(2):157–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vaschetto R, Nicola S, et al. Serun levels of Osteopontin are increased in SIRS and sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:2186–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Laborit H. Les regulations metaboliques. Paris: Masson & Cie; 1965. p. 409.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lillehei RC, Longerbeam JK, Rosenberg JC. The nature of irreversible shock. In: Bock: shock pathogenesis and therapy. Berlin: Springer; 1962. p. 106–33.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Backer D, Creteur J, Silva E, Vincent JL. Effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine on the splanchnic circulation in septic shock: which is best? Crit Care Med. 2003;31(6):1659–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Levy B. Epinephrine in septic shock: Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde? Crit Care Med. 2003;31(6):1866–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dellinger RP, Levy MM, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. 41(2); February 2013. www.comjournal.org
  38. 38.
    Freeman NE, et al. Effect of total sympathectomy on occurrence of shock from hemorrhage. J Clin Invest. 1938;17:359.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Levy EZ, North W, Wells JA. Modification of traumatic shock by adrenergic blocking agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1954;112:151–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ross CA, Herczeg S. Effect of ganglionic blocking agents on traumatic shock in rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1956;91:196.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Overton RC, De Backey ME. Experimental observation on the influence of hypothermia and autonomic blocking agents on hemorrhagic shock. Ann Surg. 1956;143:439.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lillehei RC, Mc Lean LD. Physiological approach to successful treatment of endotoxin shock in experimental animal. Arch Surg. 1957;78:464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nickerson M. Drug therapy of shock. In: Von Euler US, Bock KD, editors. Shock pathogenesis and therapy. An international symposium. Springer; 1962. p. 356–70.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Inglis FG, Hampson LG, Gurd FN. Effect of chloropromazine on survival time and mesenteric blood flow in experimental shock. Ann Surg. 1959;149(1):43–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Marzotti A, Alemanno F, Pierri A, Costa PP, Sammartano G. Valutazione di alcuni parametri bioumorali rilevati su sangue e linfa di animali sottoposti a shock sperimentale in condizioni diverse di anestesia. Acta Anaes Ital. 1976;27(2):199–210.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ronco C, Brendolan A. E Coll. A pilot study of coupled plasma filtration with adsorption in septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2002;30(6):1250–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Livigni S, Bertolini G et al. Efficacy of coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) in patients with septic shock: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Downloaded from http://bmjopen.bmj.com/ on November 10, 2015—Published by group.bmj.
  48. 48.
    Monti G, Terzi V, Calini A, et al. Rescue therapy with polymixin B hemoperfusion in high-dose vasopressor therapy refractory shock. Minerva Anestesiol. 2015;81(5):516–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Donadello K, Taccone FS. Refractory septic shock: who and how should be purify? Minerva Anestesiol. 2015;81(5):475–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bendinelli M, Chezzi C, Fumarola D, Pitzurra M. Microbiologia Medica. Bologna: Monduzzi Editore; 1996. p. 99.Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Aub JC. Toxic factor in experimental traumatic shock. New England J Med. 1944;231:71–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benison S, Barger AC, Wolfe EL. Walter B. Cannon and the mystery of shock: a study of Anglo-American co-operation in world war I. Med Hist. 1991;35(2):216–49.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buchman TG. Blalock and Cannon. Arch Surg. 2010;145(4):393–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chambers NK, Buchman TG. Shock at the millennium. In Walter B. Cannon and Alfred Blalock. Shock. 2000;13(6):497–504.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaudry IH, Wichterman KA, Baue AE. Effect of sepsis on tissue adenine nucleotide levels. Surgery. 1979;85:205–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Cortes OD, Santacruz C, Donadello K, Nobile L, Taccone FS. Colloids for fluid resuscitation: what is the role in patients with shock? Minerva Anestesiol. 2014;80(8):963–9.Google Scholar
  7. Dalton ML. Blalock and Harrison—a rare friendship. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc. 1998;61(3):26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Eger W. Allgemeinreaktionen des Organismus und Organverȁnderungen durch die Plasmaexpander Periston, Macrodex, Haemaccel, Physiogel und Plasmagel. In: Horatz K, et al., editors. Shock un Plasmaexpander. Springer Verlag OHG. Berlin. Heidelberg: Gȍttingen; 1964.Google Scholar
  9. Garcia Barrebo P, Belibrea JL. Metabolic response in shock. Surg Gyn Obst. 1978;146:182.Google Scholar
  10. Gasparetto A, Gritti G. La rianimazione polivalente. Padua: La Garangola; 1976.Google Scholar
  11. Luzzani A, Polati E, Danese S. Colloidi sintetici. In: Gullo A. Medicina perioperatoria Terapia intensiva Emergenza. Springer-Verlag Italia, Milan; 2003. p. 137–41.Google Scholar
  12. Montanari G, Corbucci GG, Gasparetto A. Cellula e shock. Minerva Anestesiol. 1979;45:519.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Nagler AL, Levenson SM. The nature of the toxic material in the blood of rats subjected to irreversible hemorrhagic shock. Circ Shock. 1974;1:251.Google Scholar
  14. Nielsen VG. Old mineshaft, new canary: can circulating osteopontin concentrations predict septic shock? Minerva Anestesiol. 2015;81(2):116–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Rushmer RF Van Citters RL, Franklin DL. Shock: semantic enigma. Circulation. 1962;26:445–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Saleta JL, Nieto JAS, et al. Nosocomial outbreaks caused by leuconostoc mesenteroides. Emerg Infect Dis J. 2008;14(6). http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/6/07-0581
  17. Shorr E, Zweifach BW. Furchgott. On the occurrence, sites and modes of origin and destruction, of priciples affecting the compensatory vascular mechanism in experimental shock. Science. 1945;102:489–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Owen W, Thomas O. Transcript of discussion at the meeting. Trans Am Surg Assoc. 1934;52:123–68.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Bosco
    • 1
  • Fernando Alemanno
    • 2
  1. 1.UOC Anaesthesia and ResuscitationS. Spirito and Ophthalmic HospitalsRomeItaly
  2. 2.Anaesthesia and Intensive CareBrescia Clinical InstitutesBresciaItaly

Personalised recommendations