Local Anaesthetics

  • Paolo GrossiEmail author
  • Fernando Alemanno


Chemical characteristics of the various local anaesthetics are described: moreover their mechanism of action, toxicity, and the remedies to the latter.


Local anaesthetics Cocaine Procaine Lidocaine Mepivacaine Bupivacaine Ropivacaine Levobupivacaine Prilocaine Articaine Local anaesthetics toxicity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine DepartmentASST Pini-CTO Traumatology and Orthopedics CentreMilanItaly
  2. 2.Anaesthesia and Intensive CareBrescia Clinical InstitutesBresciaItaly

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