• Kenneth B. ChristopherEmail author


Hypernatremia is common in the critically ill. Etiology is most often related to high free water losses and or inadequate free water repletion. Diagnosis can be made with serum sodium and evaluation of patient story, course, and medication history. Free water repletion amounts are determined by using formulas to calculate free water deficit and ongoing free water loss. The most important management issue is to ensure adequate free water replacement during ongoing free water losses in the setting of a free water deficit.


Hypernatremia Sodium Free water Repletion 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Renal MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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