Overview of Nanomaterial-Assisted Technologies for Denitrification Processes

  • Naghmeh Sadat Mirbagheri
  • Samad SabbaghiEmail author
  • Pu Chen
  • Zahra Bahmani
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 27)


Nowadays due to the industrial growth, excessive utilization of agricultural fertilizers, and various ecological changes, the content of nitrate increases in our environmental water. The World Health Organization recommends the permissible nitrate concentration of 10 mg L−1 for human consumption. Nitrate concentrations above 10 mg L−1 limit can cause major health problems such as blue baby syndrome and formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in humans. Therefore, the removal of nitrate from contaminated water using various technologies is the topic of many research studies. In this context, denitrification technologies based on organic and inorganic nanomaterials with high efficiency have gained considerable attention. These technologies can be categorized to the degradation and separation processes with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. An overview of these processes in terms of their performances and issues is reviewed in this chapter. Moreover, the effect of different operational parameters including initial nitrate concentration, nanomaterial loading, nanomaterial durability, solution pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen on the removal percentage of nitrate is discussed. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of these processes are highlighted to give the readers a complete, comprehensive, and balanced view of the latest technologies for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated waters.


Nanomaterial Denitrification process Water treatment Nitrate contamination Nano zero-valent iron Photocatalytic denitrification Biological denitrification Adsorption technology Membrane technology Capacitive deionization 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Elites Foundation of Iran and Shiraz University for supporting this project. The authors greatly appreciate Mr. Mahdi Mohsenzadeh for his assistance in this work.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naghmeh Sadat Mirbagheri
    • 1
  • Samad Sabbaghi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Pu Chen
    • 2
  • Zahra Bahmani
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanochemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Advanced TechnologiesShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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