Nanotechnology in Wastewater and the Capacity of Nanotechnology for Sustainability

  • Oluranti AgboolaEmail author
  • Patricia Popoola
  • Rotimi Sadiku
  • Samuel Eshorame Sanni
  • Sunday Ojo Fayomi
  • Olawale Samuel Fatoba
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 27)


About 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water; unfortunately, there is difficulty in accessing 3% of the water as freshwater that is fit for human consumption. The paucity of safe and universal freshwater is a serious challenge across developed, transition and developing countries due to the globalisation processes and the ever-increasing consumer society. The dynamisms of the rising global demand for freshwater are the growth of the world population, industrial activities, upgrade in standards of living, altering consumption pattern and the increase of agricultural irrigation. Furthermore, climate change, such as pollution at elevated level, change in weather patterns, emission of greenhouse gases, deforestation and uneconomical use of water, are the causes of water paucity. The invariable nature of global water paucity is the geographic and temporal disproportion between the demand for freshwater and the availability of freshwater. The transformation in the development of novel nanomaterials, such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles and nanofibres, is among the most stimulating and promising innovative nanotechnologies for wastewater treatment. In this report, we reviewed the use of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment and the capacity of nanotechnology for sustainability. Thus, the major points are as follows: (1) nanotechnology in water treatment and remediation promises to overcome the major obstacles to having clean freshwater, (2) sustainability of using nanotechnology to solve the problem of water paucity of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generations, (3) the use of nanoadsorption technology with different types of nanoadsorbents in order to provide new treatment capabilities, (4) the use of nanomembranes for water treatment to allow the economic utilisation of unconventional water sources in order to increase safe and clean water supply, (5) patents that carefully utilise nanotechnology innovations and (6) the challenges of using nanotechnology in wastewater treatment.


Water treatment Nanotechnology Nanomaterials Nanoadsorption Nano membranes Nanoparticles Carbon nanotubes Nanofibre Activated carbon Patents 



The authors express their appreciation to Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, and Covenant University, Nigeria. Appreciation also goes to the Department of Higher Education, South Africa. This chapter was supported by the Department of Higher Education, South Africa.


  1. Abou-Gamra ZM, Ahmed MA (2015) TiO2 nanoparticles for removal of malachite green dye from waste water. Adv Chem Eng Sci 5:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acton QA (2012) Advances in carbon research and applications, 2012 edition. Published by Scholarly Edition, Atlanta GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmaruzzaman M, Gupta VK (2011) Rice husk and its ash as low-cost adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment: a review. Ind Eng Chem Res 50(24):13589–13613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajayan PM (1999) Carbon nanotubes from carbon. Chem Rev 99(7):1787–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alslaibi TM, Abustan I, Ahmad MA, Foul AA (2014) Preparation of activated carbon from olive stone waste: optimization study on the removal of Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ from aqueous solution using response surface methodology. J Dispers Sci Technol 35(7):913–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alslaibi TM, Abustan I, Ahmad MA, Foul AA (2015) Comparative studies on the olive stone activated carbon adsorption of Zn2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ from synthetic wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 54(1):166–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andriantsiferana C, Mohamed EF, Delmas H (2015) Sequential adsorption – photocatalytic oxidation process for wastewater treatment using a composite material TiO2/activated carbon. Environ Eng Res 20(2):181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anjum A, Lokeswari P, Kaur M, Datta M (2011) Removal of As(III) from aqueous solution using montmorillonite. J Chromatogr B 1:25–30Google Scholar
  9. Anjum M, Miandad R, Waqas M, Gehany F, Barakat MA (2016) Remediation of wastewater using various nanomaterials: a review. Arab J Chem
  10. Ao Y, Xu J, Fu D, Shen X, Yuan C (2008) A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst: titania-coated magnetic activated carbon. Sep Purif Technol 61:436–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atieh MA, Bakather OY, Al-Tawbini B, Bukhari AA, Abuilaiwi FA, Fettouhi MB (2010) Effect of carboxylic functional group functionalized on carbon nanotubes surface on the removal of lead from water. Bioinorg Chem Appl Article ID 603978:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ayub S, Khorasgani CF (2014) Adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut Shell. Res J Chem Sci 4(12):1–8Google Scholar
  13. Baalousha M (2009) Aggregation and disaggregation of iron oxide nanoparticles: influence of particle concentration, pH and natural organic matter. Sci Total Environ 407(6):2093–2101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Balamurugan R, Sundarrajan S, Ramakrishna S (2011) Recent trends in nanofibrous membranes and their suitability for air and water filtrations. Membranes 1:232–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baransi K, Dubowski Y, Sabbah I (2012) Synergetic effect between photocatalytic degradation and adsorption processes on the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater. Water Res 46:789–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barry MC, Hristovski K, Westerhoff P (2014) Membrane fouling by vesicles and prevention through ozonation. Environ Sci Technol 48:7349–7356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Basiuk VA, Basiuk EV (eds) (2015) Green processes for nanotechnology, 1st edn. Springer, Mexico, p 434Google Scholar
  18. Bauer C, Buchgeister J, Hischier R, Poganietz WR, Schebek L, Warsen J (2008) Towards a framework for life cycle thinking in the assessment of nanotechnology. J Clean Prod 16:910–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benn TM, Westerhoff P (2008) Nanoparticle silver released into water from commercially available sock fabrics. Environ Sci Technol 42:4133–4139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhatnagar A, Minicha AK (2006) Conventional and non-conventional adsorbents for removal of pollutants from water: a review. Indian J Chem Technol 13:203–217Google Scholar
  21. Bhattacharya S, Saha I, Mukhopadhyay A (2013) Chatterjee D. role of nanotechnology in water treatment and purification: potential applications and implications. Int J Chem Sci Technol 3:59–64Google Scholar
  22. Bina B, Amin M, Rashidi A, Pourzamani H (2012) Benzene and toluene removal by carbon nanotubes from aqueous solution. Arch Environ Prot 38(1):3–25Google Scholar
  23. Blowes DW, Ptacek CJ, Benner SG, McRae CWT, Bennett TA, Puls RW (2000) Treatment of inorganic contaminants using permeable reactive barriers. J Contam Hydrol 45:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boccuni F, Rondinone B, Petyx C, Iavicoli S (2008) Potential occupational exposure to manufactured nanoparticles in Italy. J Clean Prod 16:949–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Botes M, Cloete TE (2010) The potential of nanofibers and nanobiocides in water purification. Crit Rev Microbiol 36(1):68–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bt Fuadi NA, Ibrahim AS, Ismail KN (2012) Review study for activated carbon from palm shell used for treatment of waste water. J Purity Utility React Environ 1(5):252–266Google Scholar
  27. Campelo JM, Luna D, Luque R, Marinas JS, Romero AA (2009) Sustainable preparation of supported metal nanoparticles and their applications in catalysis. A review. ChemSusChem 2(1):18–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cao X, Ma J, Shi X, Ren Z (2006) Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle size on the performance of PVDF membrane. Appl Surf Sci 253:2003–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carbotecnia (2014) Nanofiltration. Accessed 3 June 2018
  30. Chantharawong P, Wongrueng A, Rakruam P, Wattanachira S, Takizawa S (2017) Effects of activated carbon and cationic exchange resin pretreatment on groundwater defluoridation by reverse osmosis process. Eng J 21(2):123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chaturvedi S, Dave PN, Shah NK (2012) Applications of nanocatalyst in new era. J. Saudi Chem Soc 16:307–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen W, Duan L, Zhu DQ (2007) Adsorption of polar and nonpolar organic chemicals to carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 41(24):8295–8300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Choi JH, Jegal J, Kim WN (2007) Modification of performances of various membranes using. MWNTs as a modifier. Macromol Symp 249:610–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cloete TE (2010) Nanotechnology in water treatment applications. Horizon Scientific Press, New York, p 196Google Scholar
  35. Corry B (2008) Designing carbon nanotube membranes for efficient water desalination. J Phys Chem B112(5):1427–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cortalezzi MM, Rose J, Barron AR, Wiesner MR (2002) Characteristics of ultrafiltration ceramic membranes derived from alumoxane nanoparticles. J Membr Sci 205:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Curran MA, Frankl P, Heijungs R, Kohler A, Olsen SI (2007) Nanotechnology and life cycle assesment-A systems approach to nanotechnology and the environment. Woodrow Wilson Center for scholars, Washington, DC, p 2Google Scholar
  38. Daniel SCGK, Malathi S, Balasubramanian S, Sivakumar M, Sironmani TA (2014) Multifunctional silver, copper and zero valent iron metallic nanoparticles for wastewater treatment. In book: application of nanotechnology in water research, chapter: 15. Inc., Editors: Dr. Ajay Kumar Mishra, Publisher: Wiley, pp 435–457Google Scholar
  39. Das R, Ali ME, Hamid SBA, Ramakrishna S, Chowdhury ZZ (2014) Carbon nanotube membranes for water purification: a bright future in water desalination. Desal 336:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dave PN, Chopda LV (2014) Application of iron oxide nanomaterials for the removal of heavy metals: a review. J Nanotechnol Article ID 398569:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de la Guardia M (2014) The challenges of green nanotechnology. Bioimpacts 4(1):1–2Google Scholar
  42. de Velasquez MTO, Monje-Ramirez I, Paredes JFM (2013) Effect of ozone in UF-membrane flux and dissolved organic matter of secondary effluent. Ozone Sci Eng 35:208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Delmas H, Mohamed EF, Andriantsiferana C (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of an azo- dye on TiO2 /activated carbon composite material. Environ Technol 35:355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. DiGiano FA (2008) In pursuit of innovative membrane technology. In: IWA membrane research conference. Aug. 2008. University of MassGoogle Scholar
  45. Dobias J, Bernier-Latmani R (2008) Silver release from silver nanoparticles in natural waters. Environ Sci Technol 47(9):4140–4146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dutta AK, Maji SK, Adhikary B (2014) C-Fe2O3 nanoparticles: an easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant. Mater Res Bull 49:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. EL Badawi NAAH, Esawi and Ramadan (2014) Polymer-carbon nanotube nanocomposite porous membranes. Pub. No.: US 2014/0209539 A1:1–26Google Scholar
  48. Elimelech E, Phillip WA (2011) The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment. Science 333:712–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ensor DS, Walls HJ, Andrady A, Walker TA (2008) Particle filter system incorporating nanofibers Pub. No.: US 2008/0110342 A1:1-33Google Scholar
  50. Feng Z, Qiu X, Haung R, Qiu X, Li M (2011) Removal of chromium in electroplating wastewater by nano-scale zero valent metal with synergistic effect of reduction and immobilization. Desalination 280:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fujishima A, Zhang XT, Tryk DA (2008) TiO2 photocatalysis and related surface phenomena. Surf Sci Rep 63(12):515–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ge F, Le M-M, Ye H, Zhao BX (2012) Effective removal of heavy metal ions Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ from aqueous solution by polymer-modified magnetic nanoparticles. J Hazard Mater 21:366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Geranio L, Heuberger M, Nowack B (2009) The behavior of silver nanotextiles during washing. Environ Sci Technol 43:8113–8118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ghasemzadeh G, Momenpour M, Omidi F, Hosseini MR, Ahani M, Barzegari A (2014) Applications of nanomaterials in water treatment and environmental remediation. Front Environ Sci Eng 8(4):471–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Girginova PI, Daniel-da-Silva AL, Lopes CB, Figueira P, Otero M, Amaral VS, Pereira E, Trindade T (2010) Silica coated magnetite particles for magnetic removal of Hg2+ from water. J Colloid Interface Sci 345(2):234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Girgis EA, Aziz CT (2013) The use of nano alloys in wastewater treatment. Pub. No: WO2013020564A2Google Scholar
  57. Gotovac S, Yang CM, Hattori Y, Takahashi K, Kanoh H, Kaneko K (2007) Adsorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons on single wall carbon nanotubes of different functionalities and diameters. J Colloid Interface Sci 314(1):18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gottschalk F, Sonderer T, Scholz RW, Nowack B (2009) Modeled environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, CNT, fullerenes) for different regions. Environ Sci Technol 43:9216–9222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greiner A, Wendorff J (2008) Functional self-assembled nanofibers by electrospinning. In: Self-assembled nanomaterials I. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 107–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gu L, Chen Z, Sun C, Wei B, Yu X (2010) Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol using granular activated carbon supported TiO2. Desalin 263:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gulyas H (2014) Solar heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation for water and wastewater treatment: problems and challenges. J Adv Chem Eng 4(2):108–118Google Scholar
  62. Gulyas H, Choromanski P, Muelling N, Furmanska M (2009) Toward chemical-free reclamation of biologically pretreated greywater: solar photocatalytic oxidation with powdered activated carbon. J Clean Prod 17:1223–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gulyas H, Argáez ASO, Kong F, Jorge CL, Eggers S, Otterpohl R (2013) Combining activated carbon adsorption with heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation: lack of synergy for biologically treated greywater and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether. Environ Technol 34(11):1393–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gupta AK, Gupta M (2005) Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Biomaterials 26(18):3995–4021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gupta VK, Saleh TA (2013) Sorption of pollutants by porous carbon, carbon nanotubes and fullerene – an overview. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2828–2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gupta VK, Tyagi I, Sadegh H, Shahryari-Ghoshekand R, Makhlouf ASH, Maazinejad B (2015) Nanoparticles as adsorbent; a positive approach for removal of noxious metal ions: a review. Sci Technol Dev 34(3):195–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hansen LM, Smith DJ, Reneker DH, Kataphinan W (2005) Water absorption and mechanical properties of electrospun structured hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 95:427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hashem EA (2014) Nanotechnology in water treatment, case study: Egypt. J Econ Dev Stud 2(3):243–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hu H, Wang Z, Pan L (2010) Synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4@silica core–shell microspheres and their application for removal of heavy metal ions from water. J Alloys Compd 492:656–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huang SH, Liao MH, Chen DH (2003) Direct binding and characterization of lipase onto magnetic nanoparticles. Biotechnol Prog 19(3):1095–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Huang Z-M, Zhang Y, Ramakrishna S, Lim C (2004) Electrospinning and mechanical characterization of gelatin nanofibers. Polymer 45:5361–5368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hutchison JE (2008) Greener nanoscience: a proactive approach to advancing applications and reducing implications of nanotechnology. ACS Nano 2:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jaksi Z, Matovic J (2010) Functionalization of artificial freestanding composite nanomembranes. Dent Mater 3:165–200Google Scholar
  74. Jang M, Chen W, Cannon F (2008) Preloading hydrous ferric oxide into granular activated carbon for arsenic removal. Environ Sci Technol 42:3369–3374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jhansi SC, Campus MS, Mishra SK (2013) Wastewater treatment and reuse: sustainability options consilience. J Sustain Dev 10(1):1–15Google Scholar
  76. Ji L, Chen W, Duan L, Zhu D (2009) Mechanisms for strong adsorption of tetracycline to carbon nanotubes: a comparative study using activated carbon and graphite as adsorbents. Environ Sci Technol 43:2322–2327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jiana M, Liua B, Zhang G, Liua R, Zhang X (2015) Adsorptive removal of arsenic from aqueous solution by zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanoparticles. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 465:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. JilíIek T, Komárek M, Lederer T (2017) Polyurethane nanofiber membranes for waste water treatment by membrane distillation. J Nanotechnol 7143035:1–7Google Scholar
  79. Jones CD, Fidalgo M, Wiesner MR, Barron AR (2001) Alumina ultrafiltration membranes derived from carboxylate-aluminoxane nanoparticles. J Membr Sci 193:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kadir AA, Puade Z (2013) The utilisation of aActivated Carbon (AC) from palm shell waste to treat textile wastewater. Adv Environ Biol 7(12):3621–3627Google Scholar
  81. Kaegi R, Sinnet B, Zuleeg S, Hagendorfer H, Mueller E, Vonbank R, Boller M, Burkhardt M (2010) Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades. Environ Pollut 158:2900–2905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kanel SR, Manning B, Charlet L, Choi H (2005) Removal of arsenic(III) from groundwater by nanoscale zero-valent iron. Environ Sci Technol 39:1291–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kanel SR, Greneche JM, Choi H (2006) Arsenic(V) removal from groundwater using nano scale zero-valent iron as a colloidal reactive barrier material. Environ Sci Technol 40:2045–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Karn BP, Bergeson LL (2009) Green nanotechnology: staddling promise and uncertainty. Nat Resour Environ 24:1–6Google Scholar
  85. Kas OY, Kozlov M, Tkacik G, Nheim D, Goddard P, Leon SA (2013) Nanofiber containing composite membrane structures. Pub. No.: US 2013/0092622 A1:1-20Google Scholar
  86. Kaushal A, Singh SK (2017) Removal of heavy metals by nanoadsorbents. A review. J Environ Biotechnol Res 6(1):96–104Google Scholar
  87. Kaushik BK, Majumder MK (2015) Carbon nanotubes, properties and application. In: Carbon nanotube based VLSI interconnects, Analysis and design. Springer Briefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, New Delhi, p 17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Khajeh M, Laurent S, Dastafkan K (2013) Nanoadsorbents: classification, preparation, and applications (with emphasis on aqueous media). Chem Rev 113(10):7728–7768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Khalkhali RA, Omidvari R (2005) Adsorption of mercuric ion from aqueous solutions using activated carbon. P J Environ Studies 14(2):185–188Google Scholar
  90. Khan NA, Jung BK, Hasan Z, Jhung SH (2015) Adsorption and removal of phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate from water with zeolitic imidazolate and metal–organic frameworks. J Hazard Mater 282:194–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Khedr MH, Omar AA, Abdel-Moaty SA (2006) Magnetic nanocomposites: preparation and characterization of co-ferrite nanoparticles. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 281:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kim J, Van der Bruggen B (2010) The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment. Environ Pollut 158(7):2335–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Klink MJ, Ebenso EE, Crouch AD (2012) Physico-chemical characterization of different preparation routes of binary and ternary metal oxides on titanium substrates. Int J Electrochem Sci 7:3018–3030Google Scholar
  94. Komolikov YI, Blaginina LA (2002) Technology of ceramic micro- and ultra-filtration members (review). Refract Ind Ceram 43:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kumar A, Gayakwad A, Nagale BD (2014) A review: Nano membrane and application. Int J Innovative Res Sci Eng Technol 3(1):8373–8381Google Scholar
  96. Kumar SR, Jayavignesh V, Selvakumar R, Swaminathan K, Ponpandian N (2016) Facile synthesis of yeast cross-linked Fe3O4 nanoadsorbents for efficient removal of aquatic environment contaminated with As(V). Colloid Interface Sci 184:183–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kunduru KR, Nazarkovsky M, Farah S, Pawar RP, Basu A, Domb AJ (2017) Nanotechnology for water purification: applications of nanotechnology methods in wastewater treatment. In: Water purification: nanotechnology in the agri-food industry, vol 9. Academic, London, p 47Google Scholar
  98. Kurian M, Nair DS (2015) Heterogeneous Fenton behavior of nano nickel zinc ferrite catalysts in the degradation of 4-chlorophenol from water under neutral conditions. J Water Process Eng 8:37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kwak SY, Kim SH (2001) Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self- assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane. Environ Sci Technol 35:2388–2394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kyzas GZ, Matis KA (2015) Nanoadsorbents for pollutants removal: a review. J Mol Liq 203:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lavicoli I, Leso V, Ricciardi W, Hodson LL, Hoover MD (2014) Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in green economy. Environ Health 13(78):1–11Google Scholar
  102. Lee K-J, Park H-D (2016) Effect of transmembrane pressure, linear velocity, and temperature on permeate water flux of high-density vertically aligned carbon nanotube membranes. Desalin Water Treat 57:26706–26717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lee LY, Ng HY, Ong SL, Hu JY, Tao G, Kekre K, Viswanath B, Lay W, Seah H (2009) Ozone-biological activated carbon as a pretreatment process for reverse osmosis brine treatment and recovery. Water Res 43(16):3948–3955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lehman SG, Adham S, Liu L (2008) Performance of new generation ceramic membranes using hybrid coagulation pretreatment. J Environ Eng Manage 18(4):257–260Google Scholar
  105. Lenoble V, Bouras O, Deluchat V, Serpaud B, Bollinger J (2002) Arsenic adsorption onto pillared clays and iron oxides. J Colloid Interface Sci 225:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Li D, Xia YN (2004) Electrospinning of nanofibers, reinventing the wheel? Adv Mater 16:1151–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Li Y, Wang S, Wei J, Zhang X, Xu C, Luan Z, Wu D, Wei B (2002) Lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes. Chem Phys Lett 357:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Li Y-H, Ding J, Luan Z, Di Z, Zhu Y, Xu C, Wu D, Wei B (2003) Competitive adsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions by multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Carbon 41:2787–2792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D (2012) Environmental chemistry for a sustainable. In: World: nanotechnology and health risks, vol 1. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg/London/New York, p 24Google Scholar
  110. Lie W, Liu Y, Si X, Xu J, Du W, Yang J, Zhou T, Lin J (2017) Synthesis and magnetic properties of octahedral Fe3O4 via a one-pot hydrothermal route. Phys Lett A 381:314–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lim T-T, Yap P-S, Srinivasan M, Fane AG (2011) TiO2 /AC composites for synergistic adsorption-photocatalysis processes: present challenges and further developments for water treatment and reclamation. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41:1173–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lin KYA, Chang HA (2015) Efficient adsorptive removal of humic acid from water using Zeolitic Imidazole Framework-8 (ZIF-8). Water Air Soil Pollut 226(2):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lin Y, Meziani M, Sun Y (2007) Functionalized carbon nanotubes for polymeric nanocomposites. J Mater Chem 17:1143–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Liu T, Zhao L, Sun D, Tan X (2010) Entrapment of nanoscale zero-valent iron in chitosan beads for hexavalent chromium removal from wastewater. J Hazard Mater 184:724–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liu Z, Wang H, Liu C, Jiang Y, Yu G, Mu X, Wang X (2012a) Magnetic cellulose-chitosan hydrogels prepared from ionic liquids as reusable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions. Chem Commun 48(59):7350–7352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Liu L, Liu J, Sun DD (2012b) Graphene oxide enwrapped Ag3PO4 composite: towards a highly efficient and stable visible-light-induced photocatalyst for water purification. Cat Sci Technol 2:2525–2532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Liua B, Jiana M, Liua R, Yaoc J, Zhang X (2015) Highly efficient removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous solution by zeolitic imidazolate frameworks with different morphology. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem Eng Asp 481:358–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lu C, Chiu H (2006) Adsorption of zinc(II) from water with purified carbon nanotubes. Chem Eng Sci 61(4):1138–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lu CS, Chiu H, Liu CT (2006) Removal of zinc(II) from aqueous solution by purified carbon nanotubes: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(8):2850–2855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lu H, Wang J, Stoller M, Wang T, Bao Y, Hao H (2016) An overview of nanomaterials for water and wastewater treatment. A review. Adv Mater Sci Eng Article ID 4964828:1–10Google Scholar
  121. Luo T, Cui J, Hu S, Huang Y, Jing C (2010) Arsenic removal and recovery from copper smelting wastewater using TiO2. Environ Sci Technol 44:9094–9098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Luo LH, Feng QM, Wang WQ, Zhang BL (2011) Fe3O4/Rectorite composite: preparation, characterization and absorption properties from contaminant contained in aqueous solution. Adv Mater Res 287:592–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ma X, Agarwal S (2016) Adsorption of emerging ionizable contaminants on carbon nanotubes: advancements and challenges. A review. Molecules 21:628–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ma H, Wang H, Na C (2015) Microwave-assisted optimization of platinum-nickel nanoalloys for catalytic water treatment. Appl Catal B Environ 163:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mahdavian AR, Mirrahimi MAS (2010) Efficient separation of heavy metal cations by anchoring polyacrylic acid on superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles through surface modification. Chem Eng J 159(1–3):264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Majeed S, Fierro D, Buhr K, Wind J, Du B, Boschetti-de-Fierro A, Abetz V (2012) Multi- walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration membranes. J Membr Sci 403:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Malik P (2004) Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. J Hazard Mater 113(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Martínez-Huitle CA, Andrade LS (2011) Electrocatalysis in wastewater treatment: recent mechanism advances. Quim Nova 34(5):850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Masoud MS, El-Saraf WM, Abdel-Halim AM, Ali AE, Mohamed EA, Hasan HMI (2016) Rice husk and activated carbon for waste water treatment of El-Mex Bay, Alexandria Coast, Egypt. Arab J Chem 9:S1590–S1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Matos J, Laine J, Herrmann JM, Uzcategui D, Brito JL (2007) Influence of activated carbon upon titania on aqueous photocatalytic consecutive runs of phenol photodegradation. Appl Catal B Environ 70:461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Matos J, Chovelon J-M, Cordero T, Ferronato C (2009) Influence of surface properties of activated carbon on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in 4-chlorophenol degradation. Open Environ Eng J 2:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Matsumoto H, Tanioka A (2011) Functionality in electrospun nanofibrous membranes based on fiber’s size, surface area, and molecular orientation. Membranes 1:249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mauter MS, Wang Y, Okemgbo KC, Osuji CO, Giannelis EP, Elemelech M (2011) Antifouling ultrafiltration membranes via post-fabrication grafting of biocidal nanomaterials. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3(8):2861–2868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Maximous N, Nakhla G, Wan W, Wong K (2009) Preparation, characterization and performance of Al2O3/PES membrane for wastewater filtration. J Membr Sci 341(1):67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. McCullagh C, Skillen N, Adams M, Robertson PKJ (2011) Photocatalytic reactors for environmental remediation: A review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 86:1002–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Meng JH, Yang G, Yan L, Wang XY (2005) Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanometer pigment Fe3O4. Dyes Pigments 66:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Mintova S, Gilson J-P, Valtchev V (2013) Advances in nanosized zeolites. Nanoscale 5:6693–6703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr (2007) Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents—A critical review. J Hazard Mater 142:1–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Muga HE, Mihelcic JR (2008) Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies. J Environ Manag 88:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Nano Sun (2017) Your one stop solution for clean water supply. Assessed 3 June 2018
  141. Nanowerk (2011) VeruTEK Receives U.S. patent notice of allowance for its Green-nano Zero valent iron catalyst. Assessed 3 June 2018
  142. Nicomel NR, Leus K, Folens K, Van Der Voort P, Liang GD (2016) Technologies for arsenic removal from water: current status and future perspectives. A review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13962:1–24Google Scholar
  143. Nowack B (2008) Pollution prevention and treatment using nanotechnology. In: Environmental aspects, vol 2. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, p 5Google Scholar
  144. Oh JK, Park JM (2011) Iron oxide-based superparamagnetic polymeric nanomaterials: design, preparation, and biomedical application. Prog Polym Sci 36(1):168–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Olvera RC, Silva SL, Robles-Belmont E, Lau EZ (2017) Review of nanotechnology value chain for water treatment applications in Mexico. Resour-Efficient Technol 3:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ortashi KMO, Awad MAG, Hendi AA, Abdelaziz ARM, Hendi ASA, Alahmed AA (2017) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungi. Patent No: US 9,701,552 B1Google Scholar
  147. Pal U, Sandoval A, Madrid SIU, Corro G, Sharma V, Mohanty P (2016) Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Chemosphere 163:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pan B, Lin D, Mashayekhi H, Xing B (2008) Adsorption and hysteresis of Bisphenol A and 17a-Ethinyl Estradiol on carbon nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 42(15):5480–5485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pan S, Shen H, Xu Q, Luo J, Hu M (2012) Surface mercapto engineered magnetic Fe3O4 nanoadsorbent for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions. J Colloid Interface Sci 365:204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Park KS, Ni Z, Côté AP, Choi JY, Huang R, Uribe-Romo FJ, Chae HK, O’Keeffe M, Yaghi OM (2006) Exceptional chemical and thermal stability of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103:10186–10191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Park SK, Park YG, Lim JL, Kim S (2015) Evaluation of ceramic membrane application for water treatment plants with a life cycle cost analysis. Desalin Water Treat 54(4):973–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Pendergast MTM, Hoek EMV (2011) A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies. Energy Environ Sci 4:1946–1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Peng Y, Liu H (2006) Effects of oxidation by hydrogen peroxide on the structures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:6483–6488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pholosi A, Ofamaja AE, Naidoo EB (2013) Effect of chemical extractants on the biosorptive properties of pine cone powder: influence on lead(II) removal mechanism. J Saudi Chem Soc 17:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Qu X, Alvarez PJJ, Li Q (2013) Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment. Water Res 47:3931–3946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rahim M, Ng EP, Bakhtiari K, Vinciguerra M, Ali Ahmad H, Awala H, Mintova S, Daghighi M, Rostami FB, de Vries M, Motazacker MM, Peppelenbosch MP, Mahmoudi M, Rezaee F (2012) Zeolite nanoparticles for selective sorption of plasma proteins. Sci Rep 5:1–12Google Scholar
  157. Rakhi MS, Suresh BG, Premalatha M (2016) Applications of nanotechnology in waste water treatment. A Review. Imp J Interdiscip Res 2(11):1500–1511Google Scholar
  158. Rasheed MN (2013) Adsorption technique for the removal of organic pollutants from water and wastewater. In: Organic pollutants-monitoring, risk and treatment. Intech Publisher, Croatia, p 165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Reidy B, Haase A, Luch A, Dawson KA, Lynch I (2013) Mechanisms of silver nanoparticle release, transformation and toxicity. A Critical review of current knowledge and recommendations for future studies and applications. Materials 6:2295–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rianjanu A, Kusumaatmaja A, Suyono EA, Triyana K (2018) Solvent vapor treatment improves mechanical strength of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers. Heliyon 4(e00592):1–19Google Scholar
  161. Richards HL, Baker PGL, Iwuoha E (2012) Metal nanoparticle modified Polysulfone membranes for use in wastewater treatment: A critical review. J Surf Eng Mater Adv Technol 2:183–193Google Scholar
  162. Rickerby DG, Morrison M (2007) Nanotechnology and the environment: a European perspective. Sci Technol Adv Mater 8:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sadegh H, Shahryari-Ghoshekandi R, Kazemi M (2014) Study in synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes decorated by magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Int Nano Lett 4:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sadegh H, Ali GAM, Gupta VK, Makhlouf ASH, Shahryari-ghoshekandi R, Nadagouda MN, Sillanpää M, Megiel E (2017) The role of nanomaterials as effective adsorbents and their applications in wastewater treatment. J Nanostruct Chem 7:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sadeghi-Kiakhani M, Mokhtar Arami M, Gharanjig K (2013) Dye removal from colored-textile wastewater using chitosan-PPI dendrimer hybrid as a biopolymer: optimization, kinetic, and isotherm studies. J Appl Polym Sci 127:2607–2619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sadiku O, Sadiku ER (2010) Numerical simulation for nanoparticle growth in flame reactor and control of nanoparticles. J Comput Theor Nanosci 7:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Saien J (2010) Treatment of the refinery wastewater by nano particles of TiO2. Pub. No.: US 2010/0200515 A1Google Scholar
  168. Saito R, Fujita M, Dresselhaus G, Dresselhaus MS (1992) Electronic structure of chiral graphene tubules. Appl Phys Lett 60:2204-2206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Samanta HS, Das R, Bhattachajee C (2016) Influence of nanoparticles for wastewater treatment- a short review. Austin Chem Eng 3(3):1036–1042Google Scholar
  170. Sanyasi S, Majhi RK, Kumar S, Mishra M, Ghosh A, Suar M, Satyam PV, Mohapatra H, Goswami C, Goswami L (2016) Polysaccharide-capped silver nanoparticles inhibit biofilm formation and eliminate multidrug-resistant bacteria by disrupting bacterial cytoskeleton with reduced cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. Sci Rep 6(24929):1–16Google Scholar
  171. Schwarzenbach RP, Egli T, Hofstetter TB, von Gunten U, Wehrli B (2010) Global water pollution and human health. Annu Rev Environ Resour 35:109–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Seear K, Petersen A, Bowman D (2009) The social and economic impacts of nanotechnology: a literature review, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Monash University, Australia, p, 67Google Scholar
  173. Seitz F, Pollmann K, Mackenzie K, Opiolka S (2011) Photooxidation in combination with nanotechnologies – principles, developments and R&D approaches of an advanced technology for water and air treatment - Uviblox®. J Adv Oxid Technol 14:260–066Google Scholar
  174. Sharma VK, Yngard RA, Lin Y (2009) Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 145(1–2):83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sheng Z, Van Nostrand JD, Zhou J, Liu Y (2015) The effects of silver nanoparticles on intact wastewater biofilms. Front Microbiol 6:1–11Google Scholar
  176. Simate GS, Iyuke SE, Ndlovu S, Heydenrych M, Walubita LF (2012) Human health effects of residual carbon nanotubes and traditional water treatment chemicals in drinking water. Environ Int 39(1):38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Singh T, Pant K (2004) Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies for adsorption of As(III) on activated alumina. Sep Purif Technol 36:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Singh R, Singh S, Parihar P, Singh V, Prasad S (2015) Arsenic contamination, consequences and remediation techniques. A review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 112:247–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sironmani TA, Daniel SCGK (2011) Silver nanoparticles–universal multifunctional nanoparticles for bio sensing, imaging for diagnostics and targeted drug delivery for therapeutic applications. In: Dr. Izet Kapetanović (ed) Drug discovery and development– present and future. Intech publishers, Croatia, pp 463–488Google Scholar
  180. Song H, Shao J, He Y, Liu B, Zhong X (2012) Natural organic matter removal and flux decline with PEG-TiO2-doped PVDF membranes by integration of ultrafiltration with photocatalysis. J Membr Sci 405-406:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Spahisa N, Addounb A, Mahmoudia H, Ghaffourc N (2008) Purification of water by activated carbon prepared from olive stones. Desalin 222:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stietiya MH, Wang JJ (2014) Zinc and cadmium adsorption to aluminium oxide nanoparticles affected by naturally occurring ligands. Environ Quality 43:498–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Striolo A (2006) The mechanism of water diffusion in narrow carbon nanotubes. Nano Lett 6(4):633–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Stroeve P, Ileri N (2011) Biotechnical and other applications of nanoporous membranes. Trends Biotechnol 29(6):259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Susheela P, Radha R (2015) Production of activated carbon from dry coconut shell and its efficacy in treating waste water. Inter J Chem Biol Sci 1(10):1–9Google Scholar
  186. Tansel B (2008) New technologies for water and wastewater treatment: a survey of recent patents. Recent Patents on Chem Eng 1:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tavallai H, Abdardideh D, Aalaei M, Zahmatkesh S (2012) New application of chemically modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes with thiosemicarbazide as a sorbent for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Co(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) in environmental and biological samples prior to determination of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Chin Chem Soc 59:114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Teixido M, Pignatello JJ, Beltran JL, Grenados M, Peccia J (2011) Speciation of the ionizable antibiotic sulfamethazine on black carbon (biochar). Environ Sci Technol 45:10020–10027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Teja AS, Koh PY (2009) Synthesis, properties, and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Prog Cryst Growth Charact Mater 55(1–2):22–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Thamilselvi V, Radha KV (2017) Silver nanoparticle loaded silica adsorbent for wastewater treatment. Korean J Chem Eng 34(6):1801–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Thangavel P, Sridevi G (2015) Green nanotechnology: the solution to sustainable development of environment. In: Environmental sustainability: role of green technologies. Springer, New Delhi, p 312Google Scholar
  192. Theron J, Walker JA, Cloete TE (2008) Nanotechnology and water treatment: applications and emerging opportunities. Crit Rev Microbiol 34:43–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Tong T, Elimelech M (2016) The global rise of zero liquid discharge for wastewater management: drivers, technologies, and future directions. Critical review. Environ Sci Technol 50:6846–6855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Tryba B, Morawski AW, Inagaki M (2003) Application of TiO2 -mounted activated carbon to the removal of phenol from water. Appl Catal 41:427–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Tuccillo ME, Boyd G, Dionysiou D, Shatkin JA (2011) Challenges and opportunity of nanomaterials in drinking water. Water Res Foundation, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  196. Tung CH, Shen SY, Chang JH, Hsu YM, Lai YC (2013) Treatment of real printing wastewater with an electrocatalytic process. Sep Purif Technol 117(30):131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Valtchev V, Tosheva L (2013) Porous nanosized particles: preparation, properties, and applications. Chem Rev 113:6734–6760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Verma A, Tyagi S (2016) Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Research & Reviews: J Pharm Nanotechnol 4:1–5Google Scholar
  199. Verma A, Dwivedi R, Prasad R, Bartwal KS (2013) Microwave-assisted synthesis of mixed metal-oxide nanoparticles. J Nanoparticles 737831:1–11Google Scholar
  200. Verma A, Sharma V, Tyagi S (2017) Green nanotechnology. Research and Reviews: J Pharm Pharm Sci 5(4):60–65Google Scholar
  201. Visa M, Duta A (2013) TiO2/fly ash novel substrate for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and surfactants. Chem Eng J 223:860–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Visa M, Andronic L, Duta A (2015) Fly ash-TiO2 nanocomposite material for multi- pollutants wastewater treatment. J Environ Manag 150:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Voutchkov N (2017) Pretreatment for reverse osmosis desalination. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 274Google Scholar
  204. Walser T, Demou E, Lang DJ, Hellweg S (2011) Prospective environmental life cycle assessment of nanosilver t-shirts. Environ Sci Technol 45:4570–4578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wang T (2007) Electrospun carbon nanofibers for electrochemical capacitor electrodes. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, USAGoogle Scholar
  206. Wang Y, Hsieh YL (2004) Enzyme immobilization to ultra-fine cellulose fibers via amphiphilic polyethylene glycol spacers. J Polym Sci A 42:4289–4299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wang X, Chen X, Yoon K, Fang D, Hsiao BS, Chu B (2005) High flux filtration medium based on nanofibrous substrate with hydrophilic nanocomposite coating. Environ Sci Technol 39:7684–7691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wang JP, Chen YZ, Feng HM, Zhang SJ, Yu HQ (2007) Removal of 2,4 – dichlorophenol from aqueous solution by static-air-activated carbon fibers. J Colloid Interface Sci 313:80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wang X, Tao S, Xing B (2009) Sorption and competition of aromatic compounds and humic acid on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 43(16):6214–6219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Wang L, Zhu D, Duan L, Chen W (2010) Adsorption of single-ringed N- and S-hyterocyclic aromatics on carbon nanotubes. Carbon 48:3906–3915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Wang X, Guo Y, Yang L, Han M, Zhao J, Cheng X (2012) Nanomaterials as sorbents to remove heavy metal ions in wastewater treatment. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2:2–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Warner CL, Chouyyok W, Mackie KE, Niener D, Saraf LV, Drouby TC, Warner MG, Addleman RS (2012) Manganese doping of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: tailoring surface reactivity for a regenerable heavy metal sorbent. Langmuir 28(8):3931–3937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Wetworks (2013) Wetwork: the cleaner solution. Assessed 3 June 2018
  214. White BR, Stackhouse BT, Holcombe JA (2009) Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with poly-L-cysteine for chelation of As(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). J Hazard Mater 161(2):848–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wiesner MR, Barron AR, Jérôme R (2007) Membrane processes. In: Environmental nanotechnology: applications and impacts of nanomaterials. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, p 356Google Scholar
  216. Worch E (2012) Adsorption technology in water treatment: fundamentals, processes, and modeling. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co, Berlin/Boston, p 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Wu H, Zhou W, Yildirim T (2007) Hydrogen storage in a prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework-8. J Am Chem Soc 129:5314–5315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wu YN, Zhou M, Zhang B, Wu B, Li J, Qiao J, Guan X, Li F (2014) Amino acid assisted templating synthesis of hierarchical zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for efficient arsenate removal. Nanoscale 6:1105–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Xing W, Fan Y, Jin W (2013) Application of ceramic membranes in the treatment of water. In: Duke M, Zhao D, Semiat R (eds) Functional nanostructured materials and membranes for water treatment. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, KGaA, p 202Google Scholar
  220. Xu J (2011) Synergy effect on a suspended mixture of ceria and activated carbon for the photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Powder Technol 210:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Xu Q, Wei Y, Liu Y, Ji X, Yang L, Gu M (2009) Preparation of Mg/Fe spinel ferrite nanoparticles from Mg/Fe-LDH microcrystallites under mild conditions. Solid State Sci 11(2):472–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Xu P, Zeng GM, Huang DL, Feng CL, Hu S, Zhao MH, Lai C, Wei Z, Huang C, Xie GX, Liu ZF (2012) Use of iron oxide nanomaterials in wastewater treatment: a review. Sci Total Environ 424:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Yaacob WZW, Kamaruzaman N, Samsudin AR (2012) Development of nano-zero valent iron for the remediation of contaminated water. Chem Eng Trans 28:25–30Google Scholar
  224. Yalcinkaya (2017) Mechanically enhanced electrospun nanofibers for wastewater treatment. E3S Web of Conferences 22:00193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Yanan Y, Huixuan Z, Peng W, Qingzhu Z, Jun L (2007) The influence of nano-sized TiO2 fillers on the morphologies and properties of PSF UF membrane. J Membr Sci 288(1):231–238Google Scholar
  226. Yang K, Xing BS (2010) Adsorption of organic compounds by carbon nanomaterials in aqueous phase: Polanyi theory and its application. Chem Rev 110(10):5989–6008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Yang K, Wang X, Zhu L, Xing B (2006) Competitive sorption of Pyrene, Phenanthrene, and naphthalene on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 40(18):5804–5810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Yang K, Wu W, Jing Q, Zhu L (2008) Aqueous adsorption of aniline, phenol and their substitutes by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 42:7931–7936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Yang Y, Nie C, Deng Y, Cheng C, He C, Ma L, Zhao C (2016) Improved antifouling and antimicrobial efficiency of ultrafiltration membranes with functional carbon nanotubes. RSC Adv 6:88265–88276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Yao J, Bastiaansen CWM, Peijs T (2014) High strength and high modulus electrospun nanofibers. Fibers 2:158–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Yin J, Zhu G, Deng B (2013) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/polysulfone (PSU) mixed matrix hollow fiber membranes for enhanced water treatment. J Membr Sci 437:237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Yu DG, Teng MY, Chou WL, Yang MC (2003) Characterization and inhibitory effect of antibacterial PAN-based hollow fiber loaded with silver nitrate. J Membr Sci 225:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Zamora RMR, Schouwenaars R, Moreno AD, Buitrón G (2000) Production of activated carbon from petroleum cake and its application in water treatment for the removal of metals and phenol. Water Sci Technol 2(5):119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zander NE, Gillan M, Sweetser D (2016) Recycled PET nanofibers for water filtration applications. Materials 9(247):1–10Google Scholar
  235. Zare K, Gupta VN, Moradi O, Makhlouf ASB, Sillanpa M, Nadagouda MN, Sedehg H, Shahryari-Ghoshekandi R, Pal A, Wang ZJ, Tyagi I, Kazemi M (2015) A comparative study on the basis of adsorption capacity between CNTs and activated carbon as adsorbents for removal of noxious synthetic dyes: A review. J Nanostruct Chem 5:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Zhang H (2013) Application of silver nanoparticles in drinking water purification. Doctoral thesis, University of Rhode IslandGoogle Scholar
  237. Zhang X, Zhou M, Lei L (2005) Preparation of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings of nanosized particles on activated carbon by AP-MOCVD. Carbon 43:1700–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zhang Q, Pan B, Pan B, Zhang W, Jia K, Zhang Q (2008) Selective sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions by a polymeric cation exchanger containing nano-Zr(HPO3S)2. Environ Sci Technol 42:4140–4145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zhang S, Shao T, Bekaroglu SSK, Karanfil T (2009a) Adsorption of synthetic organic chemicals by carbon nanotubes: effects of background solution chemistry. Water Res 44(6):2067–2074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhang Q, Fan Y, Xu N (2009b) Effect of the surface properties on filtration performance of Al2O3eTiO2composite membrane. Sep Purif Technol 66(2):306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Zhang SX, Niu HY, Hu ZJ, Cai YQ, Shi Y (2010a) Preparation of carbon coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their application for solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples. J Chromatogr A 1217(29):4757–4764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Zhang W, Zuo L, Wang L (2010b) Visible-light assisted Methylene Blue (MB) removal by novel TiO2/adsorbent nanocomposites. Water Sci Technol 61:2863–2871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zhang S, Shao T, Karanfil T (2011a) The effects of dissolved natural organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic chemicals by activated carbons and carbon nanotubes. Water Res 45:1378–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Zhang D, Pan B, Wang B, Zhang H, Peng H, Ning P (2011b) Adsorption of sulfamethaxazole on functionalized carbon nanotubes as affected by cations and anions. Environ Pollut 159:2612–2621Google Scholar
  245. Zhao X, Lv L, Pan B, Zhang W, Zhang S, Zhang Q (2011) Polymer-supported nanocomposites for environmental application. A review. Chem Eng J 170:381–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Zhu A, Christofides PD, Cohen Y (2008) Effect of thermodynamic restriction on energy cost optimization of RO membrane water desalination. Ind Eng Chem Res 48(13):6010–6021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Zhu H, Jia Y, Wu X, Wang H (2009) Removal of arsenic from water by supported nano zero-valent iron on activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 172:1591–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Zodrow K, Brunet L, Mahendra S, Li D, Zhang A, Li Q, Alvarez PJJ (2009) Polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes impregnated with silver nanoparticles show improved biofouling resistance and virus removal. Water Res 43(3):715–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oluranti Agboola
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Patricia Popoola
    • 2
  • Rotimi Sadiku
    • 2
  • Samuel Eshorame Sanni
    • 1
  • Sunday Ojo Fayomi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Olawale Samuel Fatoba
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria

Personalised recommendations