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Acute and Acute-on-Chronic Respiratory Failure: Impact of Chronic Lung Comorbidities

  • Filippo Luca Fimognari
Chapter

Abstract

Acute respiratory deteriorations are frequent and dangerous events in patients with lung comorbidities. The identification of the underlying cause(s) is challenging, also owing to chronic and unrecognized imaging and functional lung abnormalities. Oxygen therapy is the first support, but is burdened with possible complications and risk of failure. Non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy are important therapeutic resources.

Abbreviations

ACRF

Acute-on-chronic acute respiratory failure

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARF

Acute respiratory failure

CO2

Carbon dioxide

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COT

Conventional oxygen therapy

CT

Computed tomography

FEV1

Forced expiratory volume in the first second

FiO2

Fraction of inspired oxygen

FVC

Forced vital capacity

HFNC

High-flow nasal cannula

IPF

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

NIV

Non-invasive ventilation

RLD

Restrictive lung disease

V/Q

Ventilation/perfusion

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filippo Luca Fimognari
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Acute GeriatricsAnnunziata-Mariano Santo-S. Barbara HospitalCosenzaItaly

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