An acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) has high possibilities to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and increased death risk. AHRF which represents a common end-point to multiple pathological processes either local or systemic may have many medical conditions as aetiology. The causes may be pulmonary and extrapulmonary. Between pulmonary determinants, pneumonia and bacterial and virus infection diseases are the most frequent disease associated with AHRF. On the other hand, many non-infectious etiologic conditions, such as blunt chest contusion, multiple injuries, aspiration of gastric contents, inhalation burns, pancreatitis, and blood transfusions may cause ARDS.
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