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Status of Organophosphate Esters in the Environment of Developing Countries and Their Impact on Human Health

  • Nadeem AliEmail author
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
  • Nabil A. Alhakamy
  • Hussain Mohammad Salem Ali Albar
  • Khurram Shahzad
  • Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 57)

Abstract

The presence of organophosphate ester (OPEs) in the environment of developing countries has been reviewed in the current chapter. The strict regulations about the manufacturing and usage of flame retardants (FRs) like polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) lead to the increased production and use of OPEs as FRs and plasticizers to satisfy the fire and safety guidelines. These OPEs are assumed to be environmentally safe but recent research focused on their environmental presence have raised questions on their use and impact on human health. In this chapter, data is compiled on the occurrence of OPEs in different environmental matrices including air, dust, food, water, humans, etc., from developing countries. In the end, the investigation gaps were figured out with commendations for future research work.

Keywords

Organophosphate esters Developing countries Indoor dust Air Water Soil Humans 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadeem Ali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
    • 1
  • Nabil A. Alhakamy
    • 2
  • Hussain Mohammad Salem Ali Albar
    • 3
  • Khurram Shahzad
    • 1
  • Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani
    • 4
  1. 1.Center of Excellence in Environmental StudiesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of PharmacyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Community Health, Medical CollegeKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Health and Environment Division, Department of BiosciencesCOMSATS UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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