Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of E-waste Pollution

  • Biljana BalabanovaEmail author
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 57)


Electronics have unique characteristics and can be a source of significant environmental degradation, making these devices problematic toxic waste. Over the past few decades, e-waste management has not been well organized, meaning that the human population and the environment have suffered the consequences of improper treatment of e-waste. For instance, much ends up in landfill, where it can cause leaching of hazardous materials, mercury vaporization, and fires, which lead to atmospheric pollution and toxic ash residues. This study reviews recent reports on human exposure to e-waste, with particular focus on exposure routes and toxicities of humans. Specific e-associated chemical elements and compounds exist in the form of components of the equipment, target. Pieces of evidence that associate e-waste exposure with human health effects are assessed. The role of toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury) and organic pollutants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and biphenyl A (BPA)) on human health is also briefly discussed.


Toxic substances Electronic waste Environmental pollution Toxicological effects 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity “Goce Delčev”ŠtipNorth Macedonia

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