Techniques Used for Recycling E-waste Worldwide

  • Naseer Ali ShahEmail author
  • Raja Muhammad Waqas Anjum
  • Yasir Rasheed
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 57)


There is a revolution in the field of material science and information technology. The whole world has become a global village due to the distribution of technology all around the globe. Electronic products have been welcoming to everyone as cheap and updated versions are being introduced day by day. People are enjoying the perks of being modernized due to technology, but at the same time, it is creating drastic effects as disposal of electronic waste has become a major challenge these days. All countries are trying to find new ways to dispose of e-waste because burning would create incurable environmental pollution. In this chapter, we will study the techniques which are being used by developing and developed countries to dispose of e-waste.


Techniques Recycling E-waste Worldwide 


  1. Adams DM, Trenor CC, Hammill AM, Vinks AA, Patel MN, Chaudry G et al (2016) Efficacy and safety of sirolimus in the treatment of complicated vascular anomalies. Pediatrics 137(2):2015–3257Google Scholar
  2. Amankwah-Amoah J (2016) Global business and emerging economies: towards a new perspective on the effects of e-waste. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 105:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andarani P, Goto N (2013) Potential e-waste generated from households in Indonesia using material flow analysis. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 16:306–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beelen R, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Stafoggia M, Andersen ZJ, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B et al (2014) Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project. Lancet 383(9919):785–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A et al (2008) Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) 2008. Allergy 63:8–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collard JM, Bertrand S, Dierick K, Godard C, Wildemauwe C, Vermeersch K et al (2008) Drastic decrease of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from humans in Belgium in 2005, shift in phage types and influence on foodborne outbreaks. Epidemiol Infect 136(6):771–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Daniels AC, Whitener B (2003) Bringing out the best in people. American Media InternationalGoogle Scholar
  8. Das MC, Xu H, Wang Z, Srinivas G, Zhou W, Yue Y-F et al (2011) A Zn 4 O-containing doubly interpenetrated porous metal–organic framework for photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange. Chem Commun 47(42):11715–11717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ESDO (2011) Illegal import and trade off of e-waste in Bangladesh. BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  10. Garlapati VK (2016) E-waste in India and developed countries: management, recycling, business and biotechnological initiatives. Renew Sust Energ Rev 54:874–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldsmid HJ, Douglas RW (1954) The use of semiconductors in thermoelectric refrigeration. Br J Appl Phys 5(11):386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haynes R, Lewis D, Emberson J, Reith C, Agodoa L, Cass A et al (2014) Effects of lowering LDL cholesterol on progression of kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 25(8):1825–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hischier R, Wager P, Gauglhofer J (2005) Does WEEE recycling make sense from an environmental perspective? the environmental impacts of the Swiss take-back and recycling systems for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Environ Impact Assess Rev 25(5):525–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ibrahim FB, Adie DB, Giwa A-R, Abdullahi SA, Okuofu CA (2013) Material flow analysis of electronic wastes (e-wastes) in Lagos, Nigeria. J Environ Prot 04:1011–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ikhlayel M (2018) An integrated approach to establish e-waste management systems for developing countries. J Clean Prod 170:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacob P, Kashyap P, Suparat T, Visvanathan C (2014) Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis. Waste Manag Res 32:918–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jody J, Daniels EJ, Duranceau CM, Pomykala JA Jr, Spangenberger JS (2006) End-of-life vehicle recycling: the state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue. energy systems division. Argonne National Laboratory. Google ScholarGoogle Scholar
  18. Julander A, Lundgren L, Skare L, Grandér M, Palm B, Vahter M, Lidén C (2014) Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden. Environ Int 73:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kahhat R, Kim J, Xu M, Allenby B, Williams E, Zhang P (2008) Exploring e-waste management systems in the United States. Resour Conserv Recycl 52(7):955–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kang H-Y, Schoenung JM (2005) Electronic waste recycling: a review of US infrastructure and technology options. Resour Conserv Recycl 45(4):368–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kucharski TJ, Ferralis N, Kolpak AM, Zheng JO, Nocera DG, Grossman JC (2014) Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels. Nat Chem 6(5):441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lau WKY, Liang P, Man YB, Chung SS, Wong MH (2014) Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:3813–3825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu X, Tanaka M, Matsui Y (2006) Generation amount prediction and material flow analysis of electronic waste: a case study in Beijing, China. Waste Manag Res 24:434–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Magalini F, Huisman J (2007) Management of WEEE & cost models across the EU: could the EPR principle lead US to a better environmental policy? In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE international symposium on electronics and the environment. IEEE, pp 143–148Google Scholar
  25. Moskalyk RR, Alfantazi AM (2003) Processing of vanadium: a review. Miner Eng 16(9):793–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pellow DN (2010) 18 The global waste trade and environmental justice struggles. Handbook on trade and the environment, 225Google Scholar
  27. Raman N, Muthuraj V, Ravichandran S, Kulandaisamy A (2003) Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical behaviour of Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes derived from acetylacetone and p-anisidine and their antimicrobial activity. J Chem Sci 115(3):161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robinson BH (2009) E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 408(2):183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Santos LHMLM, Gros M, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Delerue-Matos C, Pena A, Barceló D, Montenegro MCBSM (2013) Contribution of hospital effluents to the load of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewaters: identification of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals. Sci Total Environ 461:302–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Savage M (2006) Implementation of the waste electric and electronic equipment directive in the EU European Commission. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  31. Sepúlveda A, Schluep M, Renaud FG, Streicher M, Kuehr R, Hagelüken C, Gerecke AC (2010) A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: examples from China and India. Environ Impact Assess Rev 30(1):28–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sheng PP, Etsell TH (2007) Recovery of gold from computer circuit board scrap using aqua regia. Waste Manag Res 25(4):380–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh JA, Saag KG, Jr B, Louis S, Akl EA, Bannuru RR, Sullivan MC et al (2016) 2015 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 68:1), 1–1),26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. State of California Department of Conservation-Division of Recycling (DOC) (2007) Beverage container recycling market development and expansion grant program. Sacramento, California; FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  35. Streicher-Porte M, Widmer R, Jain A, Bader HP, Scheidegger R, Kytzia S (2005) Key drivers of the e-waste recycling system: assessing and modeling e-waste processing in the informal sector in Delhi. Environ Impact Assess Rev 25(5):472–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Terazono A, Murakami S, Abe N, Inanc B, Moriguchi Y, Sakai S-i et al (2006) Current status and research on e-waste issues in Asia. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 8(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thiery JP, Acloque H, Huang RYJ, Nieto MA (2009) Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development and disease. Cell 139(5):871–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tu W-L (2005) Challenges of environmental governance in the face of IT industrial dominance: a study of Hsinchu Science-based industrial park in Taiwan. Int J Environ Sustain Dev 4(3):290–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) (2008) International Waste Activities. Import/Export Requirements. Collection of Materials on Import/Export Regulatory Requirements Chapter V: Basel Convention 2000.
  40. United States Government Accountability Office (US GAO) (2005) Electronic waste: strengthening the role of the federal government in encouraging recycling and reuse, GOA-06-47.
  41. Widmer R, Oswald-Krapf H, Sinha-Khetriwal D, Schnellmann M, Böni H (2005) Global perspectives on e-waste. Environ Impact Assess Rev 25(5):436–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams E, Kahhat R, Allenby B, Kavazajian E, Kim J, Xu M (2008) Environmental, social and economic implications of global reuse and recycling of personal computers. Environ Sci Technol 42:6446–6454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yoon H, Jang Y (2006) The practice and challenges of electronic waste recycling in South Korea with emphasis on extended producer responsibility (EPR). In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE international symposium on electronics and the environment. IEEE, pp 326–330Google Scholar
  44. Yoshida A, Tasaki T, Terazono A (2007) Material flow of used PCs in Japan. In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE international symposium on electronics and the environment. IEEE, pp 46–51Google Scholar
  45. Zhang L, Xu Z (2016) A review of current progress of recycling technologies for metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment. J Clean Prod 127:19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naseer Ali Shah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raja Muhammad Waqas Anjum
    • 1
  • Yasir Rasheed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations