Effects of E-waste on Immune System of Preschool Children

  • Naseer Ali ShahEmail author
  • Jadoon Khan
  • Azmat Ullah Jan
  • Ijaz Ali
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 57)


Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the growing issues globally. Various components of e-waste including lead, nickel, cadmium, aluminum, and various hazardous gases releasing from the burning of these materials are responsible for various health issues, especially for the impairment of immune system in preschool children. In this chapter, we report that various e-waste materials are involved in the impairment of the immune system, decrease level of immunoglobulins against viruses, defected level of CD4 and CD8 immune cells, hypersensitivity reactions, lower level of various interleukins which includes IL-6, IL-1b, and IL-27, and lower level of NK cells formation and CR1 level in preschool children. This chapter shows that children of preschool age are more susceptible to various e-waste materials and having more chances of immune impairment functions.


Effects E-waste Immune system Preschool children 


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2005) Toxicological profile for Nickel. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  2. Balde CP, Wang F, Kuehr R, Huisman J (2014) E-waste monitor. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer A, Hasan R, Magsombol R, Wan G (2008) The World Bank’s new poverty data: implications for the Asian Development Bank. ADB, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhutta MKS, Omar A, Yang X (2011) Electronic waste: a growing concern in today’s environment. Econ Res Int 2011:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caravanos J, Clark E, Fuller R, Lambertson C (2011) Assessing worker and environmental chemical exposure risks at an e-waste recycling and disposal site in Accra, Ghana. J Health Pollut 1(1):16–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen A, Dietrich KN, Huo X, Ho SM (2011) Developmental neurotoxicants in e-waste: an emerging health concern. Environ Health Perspect 119(4):431–438. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cobbing M (2008) Toxic tech: not in our backyard. Greenpeace International, (February). Retrieved from
  8. Dai Y, Huo X, Zhang Y, Yang T, Li M, Xu X (2017) Elevated lead levels and changes in blood morphology and erythrocyte CR1 in preschool children from an e-waste area. Sci Total Environ 592:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fischbein E (1993) The theory of figural concets. Educ Stud Math 24:139–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fischbein A, Tsang P, Luo JCJ, Roboz JP, Jiang JD, Bekesi JG (1993) Phenotypic aberrations of CD3+ and CD4+ cells and functional impairments of lymphocytes at low-level occupational exposure to lead. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 66(2):163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim HA, Heo Y, Oh SY, Lee KJ, Lawrence DA (1999) Altered serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels in the workers exposed to antimony. Hum Exp Toxicol 18(10):607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li, S., Zhengyan, Z., Rong, L. I., & Hanyun, C. (2005). Decrease of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in children exposed to environmental lead. Biological trace element research, 105(1-3), 19-25Google Scholar
  13. Lin Y, Xu X, Dai Y, Zhang Y, Li W, Huo X (2016) Considerable decrease of antibody titers against measles, mumps, and rubella in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Sci Total Environ 573:760–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lu X, Xu X, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Wang C, Huo X (2018) Elevated inflammatory Lp-PLA2 and IL-6 link e-waste Pb toxicity to cardiovascular risk factors in preschool children. Environ Pollut 234:601–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lundgren K (2012) The global impact of e-waste addressing the challenge. ILO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  16. McKee AS, Fontenot AP (2016) Interplay of innate and adaptive immunity in metal-induced hypersensitivity. Curr Opin Immunol 42:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ongondo FO, Williams ID, Cherrett TJ (2011) How are WEEE doing? A global review of the management of electrical and electronic wastes. Waste Manag 31(4):714–730. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH (2013) Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ 463–464:1147–1153. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Van Birgelen AP (1998) Hexachlorobenzene as a possible major contributor to the dioxin activity of human milk. Environ Health Perspect 106(11):683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang F, Huisman J, Stevels A, Baldé CP (2013) Enhancing e-waste estimates: improving data quality by multivariate input-output analysis. Waste Manag 33(11):2397–2407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Waterman SJ, El-Fawal HA, Snyder CA (1994) Lead alters the immunogenicity of two neural proteins: a potential mechanism for the progression of lead-induced neurotoxicity. Environ Health Perspect 102(12):1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Xu X, Shang Q, Chen X, Nie W, Zou Z, Huang A et al (2015a) Reversal of B-cell hyperactivation and functional impairment is associated with HBsAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients. Cell Mol Immunol 12(3):309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xu X, Zeng X, Boezen HM, Huo X (2015b) E-waste environmental contamination and harm to public health in China. Front Med 9(2):220–228. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang Y, Huo X, Cao J, Yang T, Xu L, Xu X (2016) Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area. Environ Pollut 213:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhuang P, McBride MB, Xia H, Li N, Li Z (2009) Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China. Sci Total Environ 407(5):1551–1561. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naseer Ali Shah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jadoon Khan
    • 2
  • Azmat Ullah Jan
    • 1
  • Ijaz Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyQuaid I Azam University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations