Social Media Use Among the Youth and Working Class: Conditions for Remediating Globalization and Cultural Space
In the last three centuries, the invention of information sharing channels such as the telephone, radio, computer, television, and the internet and major socioeconomic global occurrences like World I and II, the Hollocaust, and the Great Depression, cosmopolitan cultures have been transformed on a massive scale and indigenous communities have been forced to adapt to the changes. Meanwhile, the inventors of communication technologies and information consumers (businesses and publics) continue to experience the media role in shaping global process. It is understood that the media is stunningly effective in facilitating cultural exchange and transnational flows of information and images through news broadcasts, television programming, and innovations in information technologies thereby fostering hybrid glocal communities in landscapes hitherto unknown. In developing countries, many young people now have access to social media platforms. However, it is not clear whether their use of such technology is preventing them from following their local customs or advancing the drive to compete for opportunities in the world. Using available e-texts and bound documents, this chapter analyzes the extra personal socialization styles among the youth in Africa, drawing cases from articles on social media use. It also uses a purposive sampling of gadget users in rural–urban areas in Cameroon, Morocco, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, and South Africa are sampled using open and close-ended questions. This study reveals devices that were more likely to deepen their understanding of and participation in the globalization process, the iPhone or the internet and the reasons; whether the “internal socialization,” “inter—extra personal socialization” or “personal advancement” is the primary reason for ownership of the devices.
KeywordsSocial media iPhone The internet African youth Customs Advocacy Vernacular
- Adegoke, Y. (2017, March 6). Why Social Media Is the Only Media in Africa. Quartz.Google Scholar
- Asante, M., & Abarry, A. S. (1996). African Intellectual Heritage: A Book of Sources. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Baran, J. S. (2017). Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture (10th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Benzinger, B. (2014). A Dialogue for Social Change on Facebook: A South African Case Study. Global Media Journal: African Edition, 8(2), 275–300, 26pp.Google Scholar
- Bosch, T., & Currin, B. (2015). Uses and Gratifications of Computers in South African Elderly People. Communicate, 23(45), 9–17, 9pp.Google Scholar
- Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Networked Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Chinweizu, O. J. (1987). Decolonizing the African Mind. Lagos, Nigeria: Pero Publishers.Google Scholar
- Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “Friends”: Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), article 1. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/ellison.html.
- Furedi, F. (2015, February 16). How the Internet and Social Media Are Changing the Culture. The Aspen Institute.Google Scholar
- Galarneau, L. (2017, July 21). The Revolutionary Role of Social Media. In Planetary Liberation Force—The Resistance. https://medium.com/planetary-liberation-front. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Garlick, B. (2015, March 18). Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media as a News Channel. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advantages-disadvantages-social-media-news-channel-bob-garlick/. Accessed February 5, 2018.
- Genrwot, J. (2013, March). Main Uses of the Internet in Kenya a Cause for Concern. PCTech Magazine.Google Scholar
- Gentz, N., & Kramer, S. (2006). Globalization, Cultural Identities, and Media Representations. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
- Gergen, K. (1997). Social Psychology as Social Construction: The Emerging Vision. In C. McCarty & A. S. Haslam (Eds.), The Message of Social Psychology: Perspectives of Mind in Society (pp. 113–128). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Gobe, M. (2001). Emotional Branding: The New Paradigm for Connecting Brands to People. New York: Allworth Press.Google Scholar
- Greico, E. (2017, November 2). More Americans Are Turning to Multiple Social Media Sites for News. The Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/11/02/more-americans-are-turning-to-multiple-social-media-sites-for-news/. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- Hall, S. (1992). New Ethnicities. In S. Thornham, C. Bassett, & P. Harris (Eds.), Media Studies: A Reader (pp. 269–276). Washington Square, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Human Implications of Digital Media. (2016). A Report Published in 2016 by the World Economic Forum. http://reports.weforum.org. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Idang, E. G. (2015). African Culture and Values. Phronimon, 16(2), 97–111.Google Scholar
- Ito, M., Horst, H., Brittany, M., et al. (2010). Living and Learning with New Media: Summary of Findings from the Digital Youth Project. Chicago, IL: John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning; 2008. Available at http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-TwoPageSummary.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2018.
- Kraidy, M. (2002). Hybridity in Cultural Globalization. Communication Theory, 12(3), 316–339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2002.tb00272.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kraidy, M. (2005). Hybridity, or the Cultural Logic of Globalization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- McLuhan, M. ( 1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Boston, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Ngwainmbi, E. K. (2007). NEPAD and the Politics of Globalization: Redefining Local Space, Group Dynamics, and Economic Development. In A. Mazama & M. K. Asante (Eds.), African in the 21st Century: Toward a New Future. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ngwainmbi, E. K. (2014a). The Mediatization of Violence: A Model for Utilizing Public Discourse and Networking to Counter Global Terrorism. Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism. https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7912.1000302.
- Ngwainmbi, E. K. (2014b, July). Media and Translation—An Interdisciplinary Approach. International Journal of Communication, Vol. 8. A Review.Google Scholar
- Ngwainmbi, E. K. (Ed.). (2014c). Healthcare Management Strategy, Communication and Development Challenges and Solutions in Developing Countries. Lanham, MD: Lexington Book.Google Scholar
- Ngwainmbi, E. K. (2017). Social Media Use Among African Youth and Implications for Cultural Globalization. Paper presented to the 16th Annual Africana Studies Symposium, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, February 22–23, 2018.Google Scholar
- Nobles, W. (1986). African Psychology: Toward Its Reclamation, Revitalization, and Recession. Oakland, CA: Black Family Institute.Google Scholar
- O’Keeffe, S. G., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011, April). The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800–804.Google Scholar
- Petras, J. (2000). Cultural Imperialism in the Late 20th Century. https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/154/25597.html.
- Pew Research Center: Attitudes and Trends. (2015, April). https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2015/04/15/cell-phones-in-africa-communication-lifeline/africa-phones-6/. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- Poushter, J., Bishop, C., & Chwe, H. (2018, June 19). Social Media Use Continues to Rise in Developing Countries but Plateaus Across Developed Ones. Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
- The Global Situation of Young People: The World Youth Report 2003. (2004). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.Google Scholar
- The Guardian. (2018). Internet Use on Mobile Phones in Africa Predicted to Increase 20-Fold. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/05/internet-use-mobile-phones-africa-predicted-increase-20-fold. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- The Mobile Economy. (2018). https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- Castells, M., et al. (2009). Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Castells, M. (2015). Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge, UK: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Ngwainmbi, E. K. (Ed.). (2017). Citizenship, Democracies, and Media Engagement Among Emerging Economies and Marginalized Communities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar