There are six causal categories of burns: fire, scald, contact, chemical, electrical, and radiation. Since every burn victim should be considered as a trauma victim, the initial assessment should be fast and objective following clear rules observing basically the following parameters: age of the patient, affected site of the body, burn body surface area and identifying the causative agent of the lesion, other associated traumas, comorbidities, social conditions, and depth of burns. Regarding the depth of the lesion, they can be classified as follows: first degree which comprises only the epidermis, second degree reaching also partially the dermis, and third degree in which injuries have spread to the entire thickness of the dermis. It is important to evaluate the airway once airway obstruction due to inhalation injury or edema can be present and indicates immediate treatment with intubation. Arterial blood gas and carboxyhemoglobin levels should be obtained when inhalation injury is suspected. Noninvasive measurement of blood pressure may be difficult in patients with burned extremities, so an arterial line may be necessary to monitor the blood pressure during transfer or resuscitation. Lactated Ringer’s solution without dextrose is the fluid of choice.
KeywordsBurn care Burn Trauma Body surface area Degree Airway
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