Esophageal injuries are a challenge to surgeons due to their complex presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. In spite of improved surgical techniques, new diagnostic modalities, and therapeutic advancements, morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Isolated esophageal trauma is rare and is usually related to other organic lesions. Complications include stenosis, fistula (10% to 28%), wound infection, mediastinitis, empyema, pneumonia, and sepsis. Diagnostic evaluation is composed of radiological and endoscopic exams. The first exams that should be performed are cervical and chest X-ray, which can present abnormalities in around 80% of the cases, such as pneumothorax, pleural effusion, pneumomediastinum, enlargement of the mediastinum, and retropharyngeal of subcutaneous tissue air dissection.
KeywordsEsophageal injuries Esophageal trauma
- 2.Mattox KL, et al. Injury to the esophagus, trachea, and bronchus. In: Moore EE, Mattox KL, Feliciano DV, editors. Trauma manual. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003. p. 178–82.Google Scholar
- 3.Rocha AC. Trauma cervical. In: Saad Jr R, Salles RARV, Carvalho WR, Maia AM, editors. Tratado de Cirurgia do CBC. 1st ed. São Paulo: Editora Atheneu; 2009. p. 633–9.Google Scholar