Traumatic Brain Injury

  • César Vinícius Grande
  • Leonardo Lasari Melo
  • Mariana F. Jucá Moscardi
  • Antonio Marttos


A head trauma is any injury that results in trauma to the skull, scalp, or brain. Every patient with a suspected head trauma should initially undergo a focused neurological examination which consists of the Glasgow Coma Scale Score (GCS), plus pupillary reactivity, that classifies the traumatic brain injury (TBI) as mild, moderate, or severe. Mild TBI is defined as GCS 14 or 15. In victims of a moderate (GCS between 9 and 13) and a severe (GCS equal or lower than 8) TBI, respiratory and hemodynamic conditions, cervical control, and the involvement of other surgical specialties should be prioritized to determine the presence or nature of associated lesions in other organs and systems. Intracranial lesions are accurately diagnosed by computed tomography and can be classified as focal (epidural hematomas, subdural hematomas, multiple or isolated intracerebral contusions) or diffuse (subarachnoid hemorrhage and diffuse axonal lesion).


Traumatic brain injury Glasgow Coma Scale Score (GCS) Intracranial lesions Trauma Head injury 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • César Vinícius Grande
    • 1
  • Leonardo Lasari Melo
    • 2
  • Mariana F. Jucá Moscardi
    • 3
  • Antonio Marttos
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryHospital do Trabalhador Trauma Center, Federal University of ParanaCuritibaBrazil
  2. 2.Iwan Collaço Trauma Research Group, Department of SurgeryHospital do Trabalhador Trauma Center, Federal University of ParanaCuritibaBrazil
  3. 3.University of Miami, Ryder Trauma CenterMiamiUSA
  4. 4.William Lehman Injury Research Center, Division of Trauma & Surgical Critical Care, Dewitt Daughtry Department of SurgeryLeonard M. Miller School of Medicine Miami, University of MiamiMiamiUSA

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