Preternatural Life

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.


In this chapter we set out four possible modes of ontological existence for humans and posthumans. This relates to how we distinguish humans from transhumans. For example, humans-as-they-are, tangible identifiable artifacts, manifest in neurological activity, such as consciousness. In turn, consciousness leads to thoughts, institutions, and laws, which lead to inventions, creations generally, as tangible constructions, typically products and processes. A posthuman, being a non-natural construction, is therefore placed in the category of invented things. This we discuss has moral implications.

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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for BioethicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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