• Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.


We introduce a fourth type of creative activity, branching off in two directions vis-à-vis perception: (1) toward a cognitive mode depicting the objective reality of what something represents and (2) toward a volitive mode, where we represent how we want the creative object to materialize. In this case, we create an object based on a knowledge-about the subject. It means having the whole or complete idea in one’s imagination. Knowledge-about is not some tangible specification, but a subjective representation of how the artist desires that the subject of their expression will come to  exist.

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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for BioethicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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