Pathways to the Brain

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.


In reengineering parts of our anatomy that no longer function or are missing for one reason or another technologists focus on machines that are biomechanical as well as bioelectrical to transform the outer world into signals that penetrate the brain and move parts of a disabled body. Individuals, previously unable to move their limbs as a result of damaged brain stems, have had electrodes implanted in their motor cortex to guide a robotic arm through neuronal signals associated with the intention to move. Other initiatives report that synchronization of neuronal activity in the brain can affect memory formation. Scientists are developing forms of semiconductor technology or synthetic genes, to interface with the brain, and thus alter the functionality of perception, cognition, processing speed, memory, and self-consciousness.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for BioethicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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