An Astonishing Specification

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.


The brain has approximately 86 billion neuronal cells, and when we add supporting material, such as scaffolding and insulation for brain cells, it brings the cell count to one trillion, enough to hold three million hours of video in a typical computer. Beneath the cerebral cortex important limbic structures include the amygdala that mediates fear and other emotions, as well as the hippocampus, which merges information from short-term and long-term memory into spatial memory to enable navigation. Emotions are believed to originate from the amygdala to influence the upper cortical centers, where thinking occurs.

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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Carvalko Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Center for BioethicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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