Gender Effects of Tutoring on Reading and Math Skills in a Randomized Controlled Trial with Foster Children of Primary-School Age

  • Robyn A. Marquis
  • Robert J. Flynn
Part of the Children’s Well-Being: Indicators and Research book series (CHIR, volume 22)


The present study investigated the gender effects of tutoring, using the sample and data from a previously conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) that had been based on a sample of 64 foster children (36 girls and 28 boys) of primary-school age in Ontario, Canada (Flynn, Marquis, Paquet, Peeke, & Aubry, 2012). The intervention had consisted of Direct-Instruction, one-to-one tutoring, delivered by the children’s caregivers (foster parents). The RCT had found that the tutoring program was relatively effective in improving reading and math skills in the sample as a whole, without addressing the issue of whether the girls and boys had made average gains in reading and math of similar or different size. The present research examined this question of possible gender effects as well as several other questions of a practice-related nature, including the impact of implementation fidelity on the effectiveness of the tutoring program and the children’s and caregivers’ perception of the tutoring.


Foster-children primary-school tutoring RCT gender 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robyn A. Marquis
    • 1
  • Robert J. Flynn
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychologist in Private PracticeOntarioCanada
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of OttawaOntarioCanada

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