Advertisement

School Readiness in Children in Out-of-Home Care

  • Katherine PearsEmail author
  • Hyoun K. Kim
Chapter
Part of the Children’s Well-Being: Indicators and Research book series (CHIR, volume 22)

Abstract

Whether a child enters formal schooling with appropriate school readiness skills—the critical skills necessary to succeed—can influence that child’s academic and psychosocial trajectories throughout the school years. Children who have been placed into out-of-home care (OHC) during their preschool years may show deficits in their school readiness skills that increase their likelihood of academic failure, placement into special education, and leaving school prematurely. This chapter outlines the skills that are necessary for a successful start to formal schooling. We then examine the potential underlying psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms of the school readiness deficits documented in many young children in foster care. We conclude with evidence from, and suggestions about, an efficacious preventive intervention that may increase these children’s readiness for school and thus place them on positive academic and social trajectories—The Kids In Transition to School (KITS) Program.

Keywords

School readiness Preschool Neurobiology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support for this chapter was provided by the following grants: R01 DA021424 and P30 A023920 Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, Prevention Research Branch, NIDA, U.S. PHS. The content of this chapter is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding organizations. Katherine Pears is a co-developer of the KITS Program. The authors would like to thank Sally Schwader for editorial assistance and all of the children and families who participated in the KITS Foster Care Study.

References

  1. Aarons, G. A., Brown, S. A., Hough, R. L., Garland, A. F., & Wood, P. A. (2001). Prevalence of adolescent substance use disorders across five sectors of care. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 419–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., Barckley, M., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. X. (2008). The effect of early cognitions on cigarette and alcohol use during adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 96–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayduk, O., Mendoza-Denton, R., Mischel, W., Downey, G., Peake, P. K., & Rodriguez, M. (2000). Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 776–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnard, W. M. (2004). Parent involvement in elementary school and educational attainment. Children and Youth Services Review, 26(1), 39–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrat, V. X., & Berliner, B. (2013). The invisible achievement gap, Part 1: Education outcomes of students in foster care in California’s public schools. San Francisco: WestEd.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, K. J., Brown, K. S., Boyle, M., Racine, Y., & Offord, D. (2003). Does low reading achievement at school entry cause conduct problems? Social Science & Medicine, 56, 2443–2448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blome, W. W. (1997). What happens to foster kids: Educational experiences of a random sample of foster care youth and a matched group of non-foster care youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 14, 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brock, L. L., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Nathanson, L., & Grimm, K. J. (2009). The contributions of ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ executive function to children’s academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burchinal, M. R., Lowe Vandell, D., & Belsky, J. (2014). Is the prediction of adolescent outcomes from early child care moderated by later maternal sensitivity? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Developmental Psychology, 50, 542–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, F. A., Conti, G., Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Pungello, E., et al. (2014). Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science, 343, 1478–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casey, B. J., Somerville, L. H., Gotlib, I. H., Ayduk, O., Franklin, N. T., Askren, M. K., et al. (2011). Behavioral and neural correlates of delay of gratification 40 years later. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 14998–15003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheung, C., Lwin, K., & Jenkins, J. M. (2012). Helping youth in care succeed: Influence of caregiver involvement on academic achievement. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 1092–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clements, M. A., Reynolds, A. J., & Hickey, E. J. (2004). Site-level predictors of children’s school and social competence in the Chicago Child–Parent Centers. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 273–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davoudzadeh, P., McTernan, M. L., & Grimm, K. J. (2015). Early school readiness predictors of grade retention from kindergarten through eighth grade: A multilevel discrete-time survival analysis approach. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 32, 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Denham, S. A., Caverly, S., Schmidt, M. H., Blair, K., DeMulder, E., Caal, S., et al. (2002). Preschool understanding of emotions: Contributions to classroom anger and aggression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 901–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Desimone, L. M. (2017). Instructional coaching as high-quality professional development. Theory Into Practice, 56, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Academic and cognitive functioning in first grade: Associations with earlier home and child care predictors and with concurrent home and classroom experiences. School Psychology Review, 35, 11–30.Google Scholar
  18. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., et al. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1428–1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Froiland, J. M., Peterson, A., & Davison, M. L. (2013). The long-term effects of early parent involvement and parent expectation in the USA. School Psychology International, 34, 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottfried, A. W., Schlackman, J., Gottfried, A. E., & Boutin-Martinez, A. S. (2015). Parental provision of early literacy environment as related to reading and educational outcomes across the academic lifespan. Parenting: Science and Practice, 15, 24–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Graham, A. M., Yockelson, M., Kim, H. K., Bruce, J., Pears, K. C., & Fisher, P. A. (2012). Effects of maltreatment and early intervention on diurnal cortisol across the start of school: A pilot study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 666–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Graham, A. M., Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., Bruce, J., & Fisher, P. A. (2018). Effects of a school readiness intervention on hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning and school adjustment for children in foster care. Development and Psychopathology, 30(2), 651–664.Google Scholar
  23. Graziano, P. A., Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2007). The role of emotion regulation in children’s early academic success. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Halonen, A., Aunola, K., Ahonen, T., & Nurmi, J. E. (2006). The role of learning to read in the development of problem behavior: A cross-lagged longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 517–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heckman, J. J. (2000). Invest in the very young. Chicago: Ounce of Prevention Fund and the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  26. Jacobs, J. E., & Johnston, K. E. (2005). Everyone else is doing it: Relations between bias in base-rate estimates and involvement in deviant behaviors. In J. E. Jacobs & P. A. Klaczynski (Eds.), The development of judgment and decision making in children and adolescents (pp. 157–179). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, D. E., Greenberg, M., & Crowley, M. (2015). Early social-emotional functioning and public health: The relationship between kindergarten social competence and future wellness. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 2283–2290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kerr, D. C. R., Capaldi, D. M., Pears, K. C., & Owen, L. D. (2009). A prospective three generational study of fathers’ constructive parenting: Influences from family of origin, adolescent adjustment, and offspring temperament. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1257–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kiernan, K. E., & Mensah, F. K. (2011). Poverty, family resources and children’s early educational attainment: The mediating role of parenting. British Educational Research Journal, 37, 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koss, K. J., Mliner, S. B., Donzella, B., & Gunnar, M. R. (2016). Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at schoolentry: A study of internationally adopted children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 66, 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ladd, G. W., Birch, S. H., & Buhs, E. S. (1999). Children’s social and scholastic lives in kindergarten: Related spheres of influence? Child Development, 70, 1373–1400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Larson, K., Russ, S. A., Nelson, B. B., Olson, L. M., & Halfon, N. (2015). Cognitive ability at kindergarten entry and socioeconomic status. Pediatrics, 135, e441–e448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewis, E., Dozier, M., Ackerman, J., & Sepulveda, S. (2007). The effect of placement instability on adopted children’s inhibitory control abilities and oppositional behavior. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1415–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lloyd, E. C., & Barth, R. P. (2011). Developmental outcomes after five years for foster children returned home, remaining in care, or adopted. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1383–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Connell, A. M., Gardner, F., Wilson, M. N., et al. (2008). Collateral benefits of the family check-up on early childhood school readiness: Indirect effects of parents’ positive behavior support. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1737–1752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Martin, L. T., Schonlau, M., Haas, A., Pitkin Derose, K., Rudd, R., Loucks, E. B., et al. (2011). Literacy skills and calculated 10-year risk of coronary heart disease. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26, 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S. A., & Stallings, M. C. (2013). Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 314–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McIntosh, K., Reinke, W. M., Kelm, J. L., & Sadler, C. A. (2013). Gender differences in reading skill and problem behavior in elementary school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., Tibu, F., Fox, N. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Nelson III, C. A. (2015). Causal effects of the early caregiving environment on development of stress response systems in children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 5637–5642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nadeem, E., Gleacher, A., & Beidas, R. S. (2013). Consultation as an implementation strategy for evidence-based practices across multiple contexts: Unpacking the black box. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40, 439–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pears, K. C., Bruce, J., Fisher, P. A., & Kim, H. K. (2010). Indiscriminate friendliness in maltreated foster children. Child Maltreatment, 15, 64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pears, K. C., Carpenter, L., Kim, H. K., Peterson, E., & Fisher, P. A. (2018). The kids in transition to school program. In A. J. Mashburn, J. LoCasale-Crouch, & K. C. Pears (Eds.), Kindergarten transition and readiness: Promoting cognitive, social-emotional, and self-regulatory development (pp. 283–302). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pears, K. C., Fisher, P. A., Bruce, J., Kim, H. K., & Yoerger, K. (2010). Early elementary school adjustment of maltreated children in foster care: The roles of inhibitory control and caregiver involvement. Child Development, 81, 1550–1564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pears, K. C., Fisher, P. A., Kim, H. K., Bruce, J., Healey, C. V., & Yoerger, K. (2013). Immediate effects of a school readiness intervention for children in foster care. Early Education and Development, 24, 771–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2012). Effects of a school readiness intervention for children in foster care on oppositional and aggressive behavior in kindergarten. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 2361–2366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., & Fisher, P. A. (2016). Decreasing risk factors for later alcohol use and antisocial behaviors in children in foster care by increasing early promotive factors. Children and Youth Services Review, 65, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pianta, R. C., & Cox, M. J. (Eds.). (1999). The transition to kindergarten. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  48. Pianta, R. C., & Stuhlman, M. W. (2004). Teacher-child relationships and children’s success in the first years of school. School Psychology Review, 33, 444–458.Google Scholar
  49. Pilowsky, D. J., & Wu, L.-T. (2006). Psychiatric symptoms and substance use disorders in a nationally representative sample of American adolescents involved with foster care. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 351–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Ou, S.-R., Arteaga, I. A., & White, B. A. B. (2011). School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. Science, 333, 360–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, M., & Munck, A. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89.Google Scholar
  52. Scherr, T. G. (2007). Educational experiences of children in foster care: Meta-analyses of special education, retention and discipline rates. School Psychology International, 28, 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sénéchal, M., & LeFevre, J. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skill: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73, 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang, D., Hsu, H.-Y., Kwok, O.-M., Benz, M., & Bowman-Perrott, L. (2011). The impact of basic-level parent engagements on student achievement: Patterns associated with race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 22, 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oregon Social Learning CenterEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Yonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations