Fail-Safe Control Software

  • Richard R. ZitoEmail author


The production of “Fail-Safe” software is an elusive goal. And, it is a matter of controversy if such a goal can ever even be reached. Certainly, defects traceable to human error and misunderstanding can never be completely removed. Although, mathematical methods may be used to eliminate some. This chapter argues that barring human errors, and assuming that input and output assertions are true for simple inductively provable subroutines, it should be possible to write fail-safe code for reliable machines provided arithmetic is limited to integer operations.


  1. 1.
    Fetzer, J. (1988). Program verification: The very idea. Communications of the ACM, 31, 1048–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Richardson, M. (1947). College algebra (pp. 316–320). New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nance, D. W., & Naps, T. L. (1995). Computer science, 3rd edn., West Publishing Co., Minneapolis/St. Paul MN, pp. 56, 323–324, 820–825, 706–708.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Myer, G. (1976). Software reliability: Principle and practices (pp. 319–320). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zito, R. R. (2012). ‘Sneak Circuits’ and related system safety electrical problems—I: Matrix methods. In 30th ISSC Proceedings (pp. 6–10). GA, Aug: Atlanta.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zito, R. R. (2015, 24–28 August). New flowcharts for a mathematical analysis of logic—Software II. In: 33rd ISSC Proceedings, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allen, F. E. (1970). Control flow analysis. SIGPLAN Notices, 5(7), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prosser, R. T. (1959). Applications of boolean matrices to the analysis of flow diagrams. In: Proceedings of the Eastern Joint IRE-AIEE-ACM Computer Conference, Dec. 1–3, pp. 133–138.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hanselman, D., & Littlefield, B. (1998). Mastering MATLAB 5. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zito, R. R. (2012). ‘Sneak Circuits’ and related system safety electrical problems-II: Computer search methods, 30th ISSC Proceedings (pp. 6–10). GA, Aug: Atlanta.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Richard R. Zito Research LLCTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations