Knowledge Diplomacy and Worldview Diversity Education: Applications for an Internationalized Higher Education Sector

  • Sachi Edwards
  • Yuto Kitamura
Part of the International and Development Education book series (INTDE)


This chapter presents a new angle of analysis on the phenomenon of rapidly increasing student mobility by applying the lenses of “knowledge diplomacy” (Knight in International Higher Education 80: 8–9, 2015) and “worldview diversity education” (Ilisko in Re-Enchanting Education and Spiritual Wellbeing: Fostering Belonging and Meaning-Making for Global Citizens. Routledge, New York, 2017; Mayhew et al. in The Journal of Higher Education 85 (2): 219–245, 2014). In current discourse around the internationalization of higher education, the concepts of soft power and global market competitiveness have become predominant reasons for pursuing increased student mobility (Knight in International Higher Education 80: 8–9, 2015). As an alternative, this chapter will discuss the potential and the responsibility of higher education, through internationalization efforts, to promote understanding of differences in worldview and to temper the recent resurgence of nationalism and xenophobia we are witnessing across the globe.


  1. Akyea, K.S. 2016. Higher Education as a Soft Power Asset: The Case of Ghana in ECOWAS (Unpublished Masters dissertation). University of London, London, UK.Google Scholar
  2. ASEAN Plus Three. 2007. Cooperation Work Plan 2007–2017. Retrieved from Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  3. Brown, L. 2009. International Education: A Force for Peace and Cross-Cultural Understanding? Journal of Peace Education 6 (2): 209–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell, N. 2012. Promoting Intercultural Contact on Campus: A Project to Connect and Engage International and Host Students. Journal of Studies in International Education 16 (3): 205–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Edwards, S. 2016. Critical Conversations About Religion: Promises and Pitfalls of a Social Justice Approach to Interfaith Dialogue. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Engebretson, K., M. de Souza, G. Durka, and L. Gearon (Eds.). 2010. International Handbook of Inter-Religious Education, Part One. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Gurin-Sands, C., P. Gurin, S. Osuna, and B.R.A. Nagda. 2012. Fostering a Commitment to Social Action: How Talking, Thinking, and Feeling Make a Difference in Intergroup Dialogue. Equity and Excellence in Education 45 (1): 60–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guruz, K. 2011. Higher Education and International Student Mobility in the Global Knowledge Economy, 2nd ed. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  9. Halsall, A., and B. Roebben. 2006. Intercultural and Interfaith Dialogue Through Education. Religious Education 101 (4): 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ilisko, D. 2017. Worldview Education as a Viable Perspective for Educating Global Citizens. In Re-Enchanting Education and Spiritual Wellbeing: Fostering Belonging and Meaning-Making for Global Citizens, ed. M. de Souza and A. Halafoff. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Kaneko, I., F. Kimura, and M. Yamagishi. 2002. Kotokyoiku shien no arikata (Approaches to Support Higher Education). Kaihatsukinyu kenkyujoho 13: 60–97.Google Scholar
  12. Kitamura, Y. 2014. Ryugakusei o meguru kokusaitekina kyoso to kyochou: Asia no genjyo toshite kangaeru (International Competition and Harmonization Over Foreign Students). IDE Gendai no kotokyoiku (IDE Higher Education Today) January-February: 51–57.Google Scholar
  13. Knight, J. 2014a. Higher Education and Diplomacy. CBIE Briefing Note Retrieved December 26, 2014.
  14. Knight, J. 2014b. The Limits of Soft Power in Higher Education. University World News No. 305.Google Scholar
  15. Knight, J. 2015. Moving from Soft Power to Knowledge Diplomacy. International Higher Education 80: 8–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leask, B. 2009. Using Formal and Informal Curricula to Improve Interactions Between Home and International Students. Journal of Studies in International Education 13 (2): 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maruyama, F. 2007. Kotokyoiku e no kouzaiseishishutsu (Public Expenditures for Higher Education). Daigakuzaimukeiei kenkyu 4: 21–34.Google Scholar
  18. Mayhew, M.J., N.A. Bowman, and A.B. Rockenbach. 2014. Silencing Whom?: Linking Campus Climates for Religious, Spiritual, and Worldview Diversity to Student Worldviews. The Journal of Higher Education 85 (2): 219–245.Google Scholar
  19. Miedema, S., and G. Bertram-Troost. 2015. The Challenges of Global Citizenship for Worldview Education: The Perspective of Social Sustainability. The Journal of the Institute of Sustainable Education 17 (2): 44–52.Google Scholar
  20. Nye, J. 2004. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  21. Nye, J. 2008. Public Diplomacy and Soft Power. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616: 94–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nye, J. 2011. The Future of Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  23. Pettigrew, T.F. 1998. Intergroup Contact Theory. Annual Review of Psychology 49 (1): 65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ryan, M. 1988. Knowledge Diplomacy: Global Competition and Politics of Intellectual Property. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  25. Schattle, H. 2008. Education for Global Citizenship: Illustrations of Global Ideological Pluralism and Adaptation. Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (1): 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sorensen, N., B.R.A. Nagda, P. Gurin, and K.E. Maxwell. 2009. Taking a “Hands on” Approach to Diversity in Higher Education: A Critical-Dialogic Model for Effective Intergroup Interaction. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 9 (1): 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Williams, J.H., W. Brehm, Y. Kitamura, C. Sam, and R. Shibata. 2017. Internationalization of Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Toward a Mapping of Indicators and Their Utilization.Google Scholar
  28. Williams, T.R. 2005. Exploring the Impact of Study Abroad on Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills: Adaptability and Sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education 9 (4): 356–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wimberley, J. 2003. Education for Intercultural and Interfaith Dialogue: A New Initiative by the Council of Europe. Prospects UNESCO 33 (2): 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yablon, Y.B. 2007. Contact Intervention Programs for Peace Education and the Reality of Dynamic Conflicts. Teachers College Record 109 (4): 991–1012.Google Scholar
  31. Yeakley, A. 2011. In the Hands of Facilitators: Student Experiences in Dialogue and Implications for Facilitator Training. In Facilitating Intergroup Dialogues: Bridging Differences, Catalyzing Change, ed. K.E. Maxwell, B.R.A. Nagda, M.C. Thompson, and P. Gurin, 23–39. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing LLC.Google Scholar
  32. Yonezawa, A., Y. Kitamura, A. Meerman, and K. Kuroda. 2014. Emerging International Dimensions in East Asian Higher Education. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang, Z., and M. Brunton. 2007. Differences in Living and Learning: Chinese International Students in New Zealand. Journal of Studies in International Education 11 (2): 124–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zúñiga, X., B.R.A. Nagda, M. Chesler, and A. Cytron-Walker. 2007. Intergroup Dialogue in Higher Education: Meaningful Learning About Social Justice. ASHE Higher Education Report 32 (4): 1–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sachi Edwards
    • 1
  • Yuto Kitamura
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationThe University of TokyoBunkyo, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations