Deciphering the Cirrhotic Patient’s Present Status: The Overlap Between Physical Frailty, Disability, and Sarcopenia

  • Elliot B. TapperEmail author


It is increasingly recognized that factors beyond traditional measures of liver severity like the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease such as disability, frailty, and sarcopenia are important predictors of meaningful outcomes for patients with cirrhosis. Although each concept is measured in different ways with clinical utility that is context dependent, they share a common biology. Understanding the overlap between these measures informs practice in important ways. Underlying each factor is malnutrition, deconditioning, and hepatic encephalopathy. Interventions to forestall or rehabilitate markers such as disability, frailty, and sarcopenia will require a deliberate, multimodal approach geared toward their specific drivers.


Liver disease Cirrhosis Portal hypertension Hepatic encephalopathy Malnutrition 



  1. 1.

    Elliot Tapper is the guarantor of this article.

  2. 2.

    Funding: Elliot Tapper receives funding from the National Institutes of Health through the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (KL2TR002241).



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Gastroenterology Section, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare SystemAnn ArborUSA

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