Advertisement

A Research Wish List to Understand, Diagnose, and Manage Frailty and Sarcopenia

  • Michael A. DunnEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Loss of muscle mass and function in advanced liver disease has become a topic of rapidly growing interest since reports relating frailty and sarcopenia to risk of adverse liver transplant outcomes began to appear 7 years ago. Our current rapid growth in understanding of the problem has allowed the emergence of robust new opportunities for basic and clinical research that promise to improve the outcomes and quality of life of patients with cirrhosis.

Keywords

Sarcopenia Cirrhosis Frailty Proteostasis Ammonia 

References

  1. 1.
    Patel VC, White H, Støy S, et al. Clinical science workshop: targeting the gut-liver-brain axis. Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31:1327–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhanji RA, Narayanan P, Allen AM, et al. Sarcopenia in hiding: the risk and consequence of underestimating muscle dysfunction in NASH. Hepatology. 2017;66:2055–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Simon L, Jolley SE, Molina PE. Alcoholic myopathy: pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical implications. Alcohol Res. 2017;38:207–17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Acharya C, Bajaj JS. The microbiome in cirrhosis and its complications. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;17:307–21.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ticinesi A, Lauretani F, Milani C, et al. Aging gut microbiota at the cross-road between nutrition, physical frailty, and sarcopenia: is there a gut–muscle axis? Nutrients. 2017;9:1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reiberger T, Mandorfer M. Beta adrenergic blockade and decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2017;66:849–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jacobson GA, Fawcett JP. Beta2-agonist doping control and optical isomer challenges. Sports Med. 2016;46:1787–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kandilis AN, Papadopoulou IP, Koskinas J, et al. Liver innervation and hepatic function: new insights. J Surg Res. 2015;194:511–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dasarathy S, Hatzgolou M. Hyperammonemia and proteostasis in cirrhosis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2018;21:30–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davuluri G, Krowkowski D, Guan BJ, et al. Metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscle to hyperammonemia drives the beneficial effects of L-leucine in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2016;65:929–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carey EJ, Lai JC, Wang CW, et al. A multicenter study to define sarcopenia in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2017;23:625–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lai JC, Covinsky KE, Dodge JL, et al. Development of a novel frailty index to predict mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2017;66:564–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dunn MA, Josbeno DA, Schmotzer AR, et al. The gap between clinically assessed physical performance and objective physical activity in liver transplant candidates. Liver Transpl. 2016;22:1324–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cawthon PM, Orwoll ES, Peters KE, et al. Strong relation between muscle mass determined by D3-creatine dilution, physical performance and incidence of falls and mobility limitations in a prospective cohort of older men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019;74(6):844–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carey EJ, Steidley DE, Aqel BA, et al. Six-minute walk distance predicts mortality in liver transplant candidates. Liver Transpl. 2010;16:1373–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berzigotti A, Albillos A, Villanueva C, et al. Effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention program on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis and obesity: the SportDiet study. Hepatology. 2017;65:1293–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lai JC, Segev DL, McCulloch CE, et al. Physical frailty after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2018;18:1986–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Liver Diseases, Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation InstitutePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations