Congenital Cervical Anomalies in Athletes

  • Jason L. Pittman
  • Chong Weng
  • Steven Theiss
  • Andrew M. Cordover


Congenital and developmental abnormalities of the cervical spine present a difficult and special situation for the healthcare provider charged with evaluating and caring for athletes. There are few guidelines in place to provide concise and evidence-based criteria for clearing an athlete to participate in sporting activities; hence expert opinion is often the only source of guidance. Applying what is known about these conditions with the basic premise of stability without stenosis can provide a framework for the treating physician. This chapter discusses common developmental and congenital abnormalities of the cervical spine and focuses on findings which are important for the athletic healthcare provider.


Congenital Cervical Anomalies Athlete Failure of formation C1 ring Os odontoideum Klippel-Feil Marfan Atlantoaxial Special needs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason L. Pittman
    • 1
  • Chong Weng
    • 2
  • Steven Theiss
    • 3
  • Andrew M. Cordover
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryHospital of the University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham, Orthopaedic Clinic at UAB Hospital–HighlandsBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI)BirminghamUSA
  5. 5.Department of Orthopaedic SurgerySt. Vincent’s HospitalBirminghamUSA
  6. 6.Andrews Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic CenterBirminghamUSA

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