Advertisement

Peacebuilding Through the Care Work Lens

  • Fatma Osman Ibnouf
Chapter
Part of the Gender, Development and Social Change book series (GDSC)

Abstract

This chapter examines the contribution of women as caregivers to peacebuilding and why they are needed in peacebuilding processes. It outlines how women can be granted audience in formal peacebuilding processes and justifies why their role as care workers during and in the aftermath of conflict should be acknowledged in national and international peace discourses. It also recommends that the peacebuilding processes should be carried out pragmatically, considering wartime care work arrangements and ethics of care. Women as caregivers during conflict have practical experiences and thus are best suited to ensure pragmatic approaches to peacebuilding. Finally, it analyses the impact of armed conflict on gender inequality, considering care work.

Keywords

Ethics of care Human security Gender equality Women voices Peacebuilding 

Bibliography

  1. Adeogun, T.J., and J.M. Muthuki. 2017. “Only the Person Who Wears the Shoes Knows Where the Shoes Pinch”: Reworking Bottom-Up Approach in South Sudan. Women’s Studies International Forum 62 (1): 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adeogun, T.J., and J.M. Muthuki. 2018. Feminist Perspectives on Peacebuilding: The Case of Women’s Organizations in South Sudan. Agenda 32 (2): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alaga, E. 2010. Challenges for Women in Peacebuilding in West Africa. Africa Institute of South Africa, Policy Briefs, AISA, June 2010, No. 18: 1–9.Google Scholar
  4. Arostegui, J. 2013. Gender, Armed Conflict, and Peace-Building: How Armed Conflict Can Catalyze Positive Change for Women. Gender & Development 21 (3): 533–549. Published Online 11 November 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2013.846624.Google Scholar
  5. Barash, D., and C.P. Webel. 2009. Peace and Conflict Studies, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Bell, C., C. Campbell, and F.N. Aoláin. 2004. Justice Discourses in Transition. Social and Legal Studies 13 (3): 305–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bendaña, A. 2003. What Kind of Peace Is Being Built? Critical Assessments from the South. Paper for the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, January 2003.Google Scholar
  8. Björnberg, K. 2012. Rethinking Human Security: Taking into Consideration Based Violence. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.Google Scholar
  9. Bouta, T., G. Frerks, and I. Bannon. 2005. Gender, Conflict, and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  10. Brimblecombe, N., J. Fernandez, M. Knapp, A. Rehill, and R. Wittenberg. 2018. Review of the International Evidence on Support for Unpaid Carers. Journal of Long-Term Care, 25–40. Published Online 1 September 2018.  https://doi.org/10.21953/lse.ffq4txr2nftf.
  11. Brock-Utne, B. 1990. Feminist Perspectives on Peace. In A Reader in Peace Studies, ed. P. Smoker, R. Davies, and B. Munske, 144–150. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brück, T., and K. Schindler. 2008. The Impact of Conflict and Fragility on Households a Conceptual Framework with Reference to Widows. Research Paper No. 2008/83, UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER).Google Scholar
  13. Brück, T., and M. Vothknecht. 2011. Impact of Violent Conflicts on Women’s Economic Opportunities. In: Women and War: Power and Protection in the 21st Century, eds. K. Kuehnast, C. de Jonge Oudraat, and H. Hernes, 85–114. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  14. Busumtwi-Sam, J. 2008. Contextualizing Human Security: A ‘Deprivation–Vulnerability’ Approach. Policy and Society 27 (1): 15–28. Published Online 3 March 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polsoc.2008.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carroll, B. 1987. Feminism and Pacifism: Historical and Theoretical Connections. In Women and Peace: Theoretical, Historical and Practical Perspectives, ed. Ruth Roach Pierson, 2–28. London: Croom Helm.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clough, B. 2015. Exploring the Potential of Relational Approaches to Mental Capacity Law. PhD Thesis, University of Manchester, Faculty of Humanities, Manchester.Google Scholar
  17. Confortini, C.C. 2010. Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies. International Studies Association Compendium.Google Scholar
  18. De Coning, C. 2018. Adaptive Peacebuilding. International Affairs 94 (2): 301–317. Published by Oxford University Press on Behalf of The Royal Institute of International Affairs.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iix251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dyck, I. 2005. Feminist Geography, the ‘Everyday’, and Local-Global Relations: Hidden Spaces of Place-Making. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 49 (3): 233–243. Published Online September 2005.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0008-3658.2005.00092.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Engle, P.L., P. Menon, and L. Haddad. 1999. Care and Nutrition: Concepts and Measurement. World Development 27 (8): 1309–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Erzurum, K., and B. Eren. 2014. Women in Peacebuilding: A Criticism of Gendered Solutions in Post-conflict Situations. Journal of Applied Security Research 9 (2): 236–256. Published Online April 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19361610.2014.883297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Esplen, E. 2009. Gender and Care: An Overview Report. Brighton: BRIDGE/IDS. http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/cep_care_or.pdf.
  23. Ferrant, G., L.M. Pesando, and K. Nowacka. 2014. Unpaid Care Work: The Missing Link in the Analysis of Gender Gaps in Labor Outcomes. Issue Paper, OECD Development Center.Google Scholar
  24. Folbre, N. 2006. Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy. Journal of Human Development 7 (2): 183–199. Published Online 22 January 2007.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14649880600768512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Folbre, N., and J.A. Nelson. 2000. For Love or Money—Or Both? Journal of Economic Perspectives 14 (4): 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gasper, D., and T. Truong. 2008. Development Ethics Through the Lenses of Caring, Gender, and Human Security. Working Paper, No. 459, Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  27. Gasper, D., L.J.G. van der Maesen, T. Truong, and A. Walker. 2008. Human Security and Social Quality: Contrasts and Complementarities. Working Paper, No. 462, Institute of Social Studies, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  28. Gheaus, A. 2012. Gender Justice. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 6 (2): 1–24.Google Scholar
  29. Gilligan, C. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Boston and Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Grasa, R., and O. Mateos. 2010. Conflict, Peace and Security in Africa: An Assessment and New Questions After 50 Years of African Independence. Institut Catala Internacional (ICIP), Working Papers 2010/08.Google Scholar
  31. Green, B. 2012. Applying Feminist Ethics of Care to Nursing Practice. Journal of Nursing and Care 1 (3): 1–4. Published online January 2012.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1168.1000111.
  32. Guttieri, K., and J. Piombo. 2007. Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace and Democracy? Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  33. Haeri, M., and N. Puechguirbal. 2010. From Helplessness to Agency: Examining the Plurality of Women’s Experiences in Armed Conflict. International Review of the Red Cross 92 (877): 103–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hirway, I. 2015. Unpaid Work and the Economy: Linkages and Their Implications. Indian Journal of Labour Economics 58 (1): 1–21. Published Online December 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-015-0010-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hudson, H. 2009. Peacebuilding Through a Gender Lens and the Challenges of Implementation in Rwanda and Côte d’Ivoire. Security Studies 18 (2): 287–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ibnouf, F.O. 2013. Women and the Arab Spring Revolutions: Is There a Window of Opportunity or Can We Expect More of the Same? Published in E-International Relations. http://www.e-ir.info/.
  37. Jeong, H.W. 2005. Peace Building in Post-Armed Conflict Societies: Processes and Strategies. Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  38. Karam, A. 2000. Women in War and Peace-Building: The Roads Traversed, the Challenges Ahead. International Feminist Journal of Politics 3 (1): 2–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kingston, A.K. 2007. Mothering Special Needs: A Different Maternal Journey, 1st ed. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  40. Krause, J., W. Krause, and P. Bränfors. 2018. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations and the Durability of Peace. International Interactions 44 (6): 985–1016. Published Online 10 August 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03050629.2018.1492386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis, J. 2009. Work-Family Balance, Gender and Policy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liamputtong, P. 2011. Focus Group Methodology Principle and Practice, 1st ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Linsley, P.M. 2017. Application of an Ethic of Care to Business. In Handbook of Virtue Ethics in Business and Management, ed. A. Sison, G. Beabout, and I. Ferrero. International Handbooks in Business Ethics. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. Lloyd, L. 2006. A Caring Profession? The Ethics of Care and Social Work with Older People. British Journal of Social Work 36: 1171–1185. Published online November 2005.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maestre, M., and J. Thorpe. 2016, May. Understanding Unpaid Care Work to Empower Women in Market Systems Approaches. London: The BEAM Exchange. Retrieved from https://www.beamexchange.org.
  46. Mahon, R., and F. Robinson. 2011. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy Towards a New Global Political Economy of Care. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  47. Manchanda, R. 2005. Women’s Agency in Peace Building: Gender Relations in Post-conflict Reconstruction. Economic and Political Weekly 40 (44/45): 4737–4745.Google Scholar
  48. Manchanda, R. 2004. Gender Conflict and Displacement: Contesting ‘Infantilisation’ of Forced Migrant Women. Economic and Political Weekly 39 (37): 4179–4186.Google Scholar
  49. Mangena, F. 2009. The Search for an African Feminist Ethic: A Zimbabwean Perspective. Journal of International Women’s Studies 11 (2): 18–30.Google Scholar
  50. Marphatia, A.A., and R. Moussié. 2013. A Question of Gender Justice: Exploring the Linkages Between Women’s Unpaid Care Work, Education, and Gender Equality. International Journal of Educational Development 33: 585–594. Published Online November 2013.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2013.05.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McCarthy, L. 2018. “There Is No Time for Rest”: Gendered CSR, Sustainable Development and the Unpaid Care Work Governance Gap. Business Ethics: A European Review 27 (4): 337–349. Published Online 27 September 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1111/beer.12190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McKenzie, J.A. 2016. An Exploration of an Ethics of Care in Relation to People with Intellectual Disability and Their Family Caregivers in the Cape Town Metro-Pole in South Africa. ALTER—European Journal of Disability Research 10 (1): 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Metz, T., and J.B.R. Gaie. 2010. The African Ethic of Ubuntu/Botho: Implications for Research on Morality. Journal of Moral Education 39 (3): 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moussié, R., and L. Alfers. 2016. Women Informal Workers Demand Child Care: Shifting Narratives on Women’s Economic Empowerment in Africa. Agenda 32 (1): 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Narayan, N. 2017. Contextualizing Unpaid Care Work and Women Empowerment. International Journal of Applied Research 3 (7): 654–659.Google Scholar
  56. Nelson, J.A. 2011. Care Ethics and Markets: A View from Feminist Economics. In Applying Care Ethics to Business, ed. M. Hamington and M. Sander-Staudt. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Netabay, N. 2009. The Darfur Peace Process: Understanding the Obstacles to Success. M.A. Thesis, University Notre Dame, Indiana.Google Scholar
  58. Neufeldt, R.C. 2017. Ethics of Peacebuilding. Oxford: Oxford Research Encyclopedias, International Studies Association and Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Olowu, D. 2011. Mainstreaming Women, Equating Men: Charting an Inclusionary Approach to Transformative Development in the African Decade for Women. Law, Democracy & Development 15: 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v15i1.2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Orozco, A.P. 2009. Global Perspectives on the Social Organization of Care in Times of Crisis: Assessing the Situation. Working Paper 5: Gender, Migration and Development Series, United Nations International Research and Training, Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).Google Scholar
  61. O’Reilly, M., A.Ó. Súilleabháin, and T. Paffenholz. 2015. Reimagining Peacemaking: Women’s Roles in Peace Processes. New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  62. Pankhurst, D. 2003. The ‘Sex War’ and Other Wars: Towards a Feminist Approach to Peace Building. Development in Practice 13 (2): 154–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parmar, P.K., P. Agrawal, R. Goyal, J. Scott, and P.G. Greenough. 2014. Need for a Gender-Sensitive Human Security Framework: Results of a Quantitative Study of Human Security and Sexual Violence in Djohong District, Cameroon. Conflict and Health 8 (6): 1–12. Published Online 7 May 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-8-6.
  64. Percival, V., E. Richards, T. MacLean, and S. Theobald. 2014. Health Systems and Gender in Post-Armed Conflict Contexts: Building Back Better? Conflict and Health 8 (19): 1–14. Published Online October 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1505-8-19.
  65. Piergallini, I. 2014. Is the Path Towards a ‘Caring Economy’ Possible? Care Work from Personal Service to Collective Responsibility. Venice: Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia.Google Scholar
  66. Pitanguy, J. 2011. Reconceptualizing Peace and Violence Against Women: A Work in Progress. Signs 36 (3): 561–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Porter, E. 2003. Women, Political Decision-Making, and Peace-Building. Global Change, Peace & Security 15 (3): 245–262. Published Online October 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0951274032000124965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Porter, E. 2008. Review: Why Women’s Contribution to Peacebuilding Matters. International Studies Review 10 (3): 632–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Powell, C. 2017. How Women Could Save the World, If Only We Would Let Them: From Gender Essentialism to Inclusive Security. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 28 (2): 272–325.Google Scholar
  70. Raghuram, P. 2016. Locating Care Ethics Beyond the Global North. ACME: An International Journal of Critical Geographies 15 (3): 511–533.Google Scholar
  71. Rahele, A. 2016. Explaining and Critique of Feminisms’ Ethical (Moral) Philosophy. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS). Special Issue, 2266–2281. ISSN 2356-5926.Google Scholar
  72. Rao, N. 2018. Global Agendas, Local Norms: Mobilizing Around Unpaid Care and Domestic Work in Asia. Development and Change 49 (3): 735–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Razavi, S. 2007. The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context: Conceptual Issues, Research Questions and Policy Options. Gender and Development, Paper No. 3, UNRISD, Geneva.Google Scholar
  74. Remenyi, K. 2016. Does the Inclusion of Women in Peace Building Processes Make a Difference? E-International Relations. https://www.e-ir.info.
  75. Robinson, F. 2011. The Ethics of Care: A Feminist Approach to Human Security. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Rubery, J. 2015. Regulating for Gender Equality: A Policy Framework to Support the Universal Caregiver Vision. Social Politics 22 (4): 513–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rummery, K., and M. Fine. 2012. Care: A Critical Review of Theory, Policy and Practice. Social Policy & Administration 46 (3): 321–343. Published Online June 2012.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2012.00845.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Santa-Barbara, J. 2007. Reconciliation. In Handbook of Peace and Armed Conflict Studies, ed. C. Webel and J. Galtung, 173–186. Routledge: London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schmidt, E.M. 2018. Breadwinning as Care? The Meaning of Paid Work in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Constructions of Parenting. Community, Work & Family 21 (4): 445–462. Published Online April 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2017.1318112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Seguino, S. 2011. Help or Hindrance? Religion’s Impact on Gender Inequality in Attitudes and Outcomes. World Development 39 (8): 1308–1321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sharoni, S. 2010. Conflict Resolution: Feminist Perspectives. In The International Studies Encyclopedia, ed. R. Denemark. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  82. Shulika, L.S., and L. Shulika. 2016. Women and Peace Building: From Historical to Contemporary African Perspectives. Ubuntu: Journal of Conflict Transformation 5 (1): 7–31.Google Scholar
  83. Sidonia, A. 2018. Women in Peacemaking and Peacebuilding in Northern Uganda. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  84. Sikod, Fo. 2007. Gender Division of Labour and Women’s Decision-Making Power in Rural Households in Cameroon. Africa Development XXXII (3): 58–71. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA), Dakar.Google Scholar
  85. Sjoberg, L. 2009. Gender and International Security: Feminist Perspectives, 1st ed. Series: Routledge Critical Security Studies. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  86. Smits, J. 2010. Ethnic Intermarriage and Social Cohesion: What Can We Learn from Yugoslavia? Social Indicators Research 96 (3): 417–432. Published Online May 2010.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-009-9485-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stuart, E., K. Bird, T. Bhatkal, R. Greenhill, S. Lally, G. Rabinowitz, E. Samman, M.B. Sarwar, and A. Lynch. 2016. Leaving No One Behind: A Critical Path for the First 1,000 Days of the Sustainable Development Goals. Overseas Development Institute (ODI), Development Progress Flagship Report, London.Google Scholar
  88. Tadesse, B., Y. Tesfaye, and F. Beyene. 2010. Women in Conflict and Indigenous Conflict Resolution Among the Issa and Gurgura Clans of Somali in Eastern Ethiopia. African Journal on Conflict Resolution 10 (1): 85–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. UN Women. 2012, October. Women’s Participation in Peace Negotiations: Connections between Presence and Influence, 2nd ed., 3. https://peaceoperationsreview.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/11/womens_partcipation_peace.pdf.
  90. UN—United Nations. 2013. Extreme Poverty and Human Rights: Unpaid Care Work and Women’s Human Rights. Sepulveda Carmona, M. The Special Rapporteur’s Report to the 68th Session of the General Assembly (A/68/293).Google Scholar
  91. Walby, S. 2007. Complexity Theory, Systems Theory and Multiple Intersecting Social Inequalities. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (4): 449–70. Sage.Google Scholar
  92. Weiss, A.M. 2003. Interpreting Islam and Women’s Rights: Implementing CEDAW in Pakistan. International Sociology 18 (3): 581–601. Published Online September 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1177/02685809030183007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Young, J. 2005. Sudan: A Flawed Peace Process Leading to a Flawed Peace. Review of African Political Economy 32 (103): 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Young, H., A.M. Osman, A.M. Abusin, M. Asher, and O. Egemi. 2009. Livelihoods, Power and Choice: The Vulnerability of the Northern Rizaygat, Darfur, Sudan. Feinstein International Center, Tufts University.Google Scholar
  95. Zachorowska-Mazurkiewicz, A. 2015. The Concept of Care in Institutional and Feminist Economics and Its Impact on Public Policy. Journal of Economic 49 (2): 405–413.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatma Osman Ibnouf
    • 1
  1. 1.University of KhartoumKhartoumSudan

Personalised recommendations