Critical components of patient assessment always include history, physical exam, and in-office visualization of the functioning larynx. Instrumented evaluation of swallow function and imaging exams may also be warranted, depending on the clinical scenario. In most children with a significant aerodigestive complaint which is not readily identified on these assessments, the next step is evaluation in the operating room for further physical examination. Operative direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy allow for close examination of the upper aerodigestive tract with the opportunity for intervention and remain an invaluable aspect of pediatric patient evaluation. This chapter reviews the indications, equipment, technique, and approach to intraoperative upper aerodigestive tract assessment.
Intraoperative evaluation of airway Larynx evaluation Swallow function Imaging for larynx Aerodigestive evaluation
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