Advertisement

Forest-Water Interactions Under Global Change

  • Julia A. Jones
  • Xiaohua Wei
  • Emma Archer
  • Kevin Bishop
  • Juan A. Blanco
  • David Ellison
  • Mark B. Gush
  • Steven G. McNulty
  • Meine van Noordwijk
  • Irena F. CreedEmail author
Chapter
  • 160 Downloads
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 240)

Abstract

This chapter reviews how global change affects forest-water interactions and water availability to ecosystems and people and synthesises current understanding of the implications of present and anticipated changes to forests and tree cover for local and global hydrology. Forest cover has declined in the past half-century, despite an increase in plantation forestry. Natural and human disturbances affect forest components (e.g. canopy and leaf area, litter and soil surface, rooting depth, and soil porosity) that in turn affect hydrological processes (e.g. interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil moisture storage, and percolation). Many of these changes result from several influential natural disturbance processes including insects and pathogens, wildfire, ice storms, and windthrow, and human disturbances including establishment and harvest of forests, plantations, agroforestry areas, and urban/peri-urban forests. However, each disturbance process affects different components of the forest, producing distinctive hydrologic effects. Climate change will directly alter forest hydrological processes, and social and economic factors will directly alter forest management, via intensive plantations, deforestation, forest degradation, selective logging, loss of riparian forest, and loss of urban trees, and changes in disturbance regimes. Despite extensive knowledge of forest hydrology, forest changes and their effects on hydrology are poorly documented in many areas of the world, and novel combinations of processes and contexts may produce surprising outcomes. Thus, there is a clear need for more geographically extensive and long-term place-based studies of forest and water. In summary, future climate and social changes will alter forests and water, requiring continued research and collaboration with forest managers and forest owners both for improved resilience to such changes, and to better realize multiple benefits.

Keywords

Global change Forest disturbance Forest management Water management Risk Uncertainty Knowledge gaps 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This book chapter is based on the collaborative work of scientific experts who authored the Global Forest Expert Panels (GFEP) assessment on Forests and Water that was published as a report titled ‘Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities’. We acknowledge the reviewers of this book chapter for their insightful comments that produced an improved product. We also acknowledge the financial and in-kind support provided by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, the US Forest Service, The World Bank Group/PROFAR, and the Austrian Federal Ministry of Sustainability and Tourism.

References

  1. Adams HD, Luce CH, Breshears DD, Allen CD, Weiler M, Hale VC et al (2012) Ecohydrological consequences of drought-and infestation-triggered tree die-off: insights and hypotheses. Ecohydrology 5:145–159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen JC, Barnes DF (1985) The causes of deforestation in developing countries. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 75:163–184.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1985.tb00079.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amazonas NT, Forrester DI, Oliveira RS, Brancalion PH (2017) Combining Eucalyptus wood production with the recovery of native tree diversity in mixed plantings: Implications for water use and availability. Forest Ecol Manag 418:34–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andela N, Morton DC, Giglio L, Chen Y, van der Werf GR, Kasibhatla PS et al (2017) A human-driven decline in global burned area. Science 356:1356–1362.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal4108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderegg WR, Kane JM, Anderegg LD (2013) Consequences of widespread tree mortality triggered by drought and temperature stress. Nat Clim Change 3:30–36.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andréassian V (2004) Waters and forests: from historical controversy to scientific debate. J Hydrol 291:1–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnault J, Knoche R, Wei J, Kunstmann H (2016) Evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis with WRF: a regional precipitation recycling study for West Africa. Water Resour Res 52:1544–1567.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017704 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Attiwill PM (1994) Ecological disturbance and the conservative management of eucalypt forests in Australia. Forest Ecol Manag 63:301–346.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(94)90115-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagley JE, Desai AR, Harding KJ, Snyder PK, Foley JA (2014) Drought and deforestation: has land cover change influenced recent precipitation extremes in the Amazon? J Clim 27:345–361.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00369.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bart RR, Tague CL (2017) The impact of wildfire on baseflow recession rates in California. Hydrol Process 31:1662–1673.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartens J, Day SD, Harris JR, Dove JE, Wynn TM (2008) Can urban tree roots improve infiltration through compacted subsoils for stormwater management? J Environ Qual 37:2048–2057.  https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayala J, Heng LK, van Noordwijk M, Ouedraogo SJ (2008) Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna. Acta Oecol 34:370–378.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2008.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bearup LA, Maxwell RM, Clow DW, McCray JE (2014) Hydrological effects of forest transpiration loss in bark beetle-impacted watersheds. Nat Clim Change 4:481–486.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Biederman JA, Harpold AA, Gochis DJ, Ewers BE, Reed DE, Papuga SA et al (2014) Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response. Water Resour Res 50:5395–5409.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biederman JA, Somor AJ, Harpold AA, Gutmann ED, Breshears DD, Troch PA et al (2015) Recent tree die-off has little effect on streamflow in contrast to expected increases from historical studies. Water Resour Res 51:9775–9789.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boffa JM (1999) Agroforestry Parklands in sub-Saharan Africa, FAO conservation guide 34. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  17. Boggs J, Sun G, Jones D, McNulty SG (2013) Effect of soils on water quantity and quality in Piedmont forested headwater watersheds of North Carolina. J Am Water Resour Assoc 49:132–150.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jawr.12001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boggs J, Sun G, McNulty S (2015) Effects of timber harvest on water quantity and quality in small watersheds in the Piedmont of North Carolina. J For 114:27–40.  https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.14-102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bond-Lamberty B, Peckham SD, Gower ST, Ewers BE (2009) Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest. Global Change Biol 15:1242–1254.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01776.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boose ER, Foster DR, Fluet M (1994) Hurricane impacts to tropical and temperate forest landscapes. Ecol Monogr 64:369–400.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2937142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bormann FH, Likens GE (1979) Catastrophic disturbance and the steady state in northern hardwood forests: a new look at the role of disturbance in the development of forest ecosystems suggests important implications for land-use policies. Am Sci 67:660–669Google Scholar
  22. Bosch JM, Hewlett JD (1982) A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. J Hydrol 55:3–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(82)90117-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bounoua L, Zhang P, Mostovoy G, Thome K, Masek J, Imhoff M et al (2015) Impact of urbanization on US surface climate. Environ Res Lett 10:084010.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/084010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brandt L, Lewis AD, Fahey R, Scott L, Darling L, Swanston C (2016) A framework for adapting urban forests to climate change. Environ Sci Policy 66:393–402.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bréda N, Granier A, Aussenac G (1995) Effects of thinning on soil and tree water relations, transpiration and growth in an oak forest (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.). Tree Physiol 15:295–306.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/15.5.295 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bréda N, Huc R, Granier A, Dreyer E (2006) Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Ann For Sci 63:625–644.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2006042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H, Parrotta JA, Quine CP, Sayer J (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers Conserv 17:925–951.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-008-9380-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown AE, Zhang L, McMahon TA, Western AW, Vertessy RA (2005) A review of paired catchment studies for determining changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation. J Hydrol 310:28–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Burt TP, Howden NJK, McDonnell JJ, Jones JA, Hancock GR (2015) Seeing the climate through the trees: observing climate and forestry impacts on streamflow using a 60-year record. Hydrol Process 29:473–480.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Calder IR, Hofer T, Vermont S, Warren P (2007) Towards a new understanding of forests and water. Unasylva No 229, vol 58. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United. Nations, Rome, pp 3–10Google Scholar
  31. Caldwell PV, Kennen JG, Sun G, Kiang JE, Butcher JB, Eddy MC et al (2015) A comparison of hydrologic models for ecological flows and water availability. Ecohydrology 8:1525–1546.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Caldwell PV, Miniat CF, Elliott KJ, Swank WT, Brantley ST, Laseter SH (2016) Declining water yield from forested mountain watersheds in response to climate change and forest mesophication. Global Change Biol 22:2997–3012.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13309 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Campbell JL, Driscoll CT, Pourmokhtarian A, Hayhoe K (2011) Streamflow responses to past and projected future changes in climate at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, United States. Water Resour Res 47:W02514.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009438 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Canham CD, Loucks OL (1984) Catastrophic windthrow in the presettlement forests of Wisconsin. Ecology 65:803–809.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1938053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cao S, Sun G, Zhang Z, Chen L, Feng Q, Fu B et al (2011) Greening China naturally. Ambio 40:828–831.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-011-0150-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cardil A, Imbert JB, Camarero JJ, Primicia I, Castillo F (2018) Temporal interactions among throughfall, type of canopy and thinning drive radial growth in an Iberian mixed pine-beech forest. Agr Forest Meteorol 252:62–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carlton GC, Bazzaz FA (1998) Resource congruence and forest regeneration following an experimental hurricane blowdown. Ecology 79:1305–1319.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[1305,RCAFRF]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Carnicer J, Coll M, Ninyerola M, Pons X, Sanchez G, Penuelas J (2011) Widespread crown condition decline, food web disruption, and amplified tree mortality with increased climate change-type drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:1474–1478.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1010070108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cesarano G, Incerti G, Bonanomi G (2016) The influence of plant litter on soil water repellency: Insight from 13C NMR spectroscopy. PLoS One 11:e0152565.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chang CR, Li MH (2014) Effects of urban parks on the local urban thermal environment. Urban For Urban Green 13:672–681.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2014.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chapin FS, McGuire AD, Ruess RW, Hollingsworth TN, Mack MC, Johnstone JF et al (2010) Resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest to climatic change. Can J For Res 40:1360–1370.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X10-074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clark KL, Skowronski NS, Gallagher MR, Renninger H, Schäfer KVR (2014) Contrasting effects of invasive insects and fire on ecosystem water use efficiency. Biogeosciences 11:6509–6523.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-6509-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cleland HF (1910) The effects of deforestation in New England. Science 32:82–83.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.32.811.82 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Collins R, de Neufville R, Claro J, Oliveira T, Pacheco A (2013) Forest fire management to avoid unintended consequences: a case study of Portugal using system dynamics. J Environ Manag 130:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.08.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cook BI, Smerdon JE, Seager R, Coats S (2014) Global warming and 21st century drying. Clim Dynam 43:2607–2627.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2075-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cooper LA, Ballantyne AP, Holden ZA, Landguth EL (2017) Disturbance impacts on land surface temperature and gross primary productivity in the western United States. J Geophys Res- Biogeosci 122:930–946.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JG003622 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Creed IF, van Noordwijk M (2018) Forests, trees and water on a changing planet: a comtemporary scientific perspective. In: Creed IF, van Noordwijk M (eds) Forests and water on a changing planet: vulnerability, adaptation, and governance opportunities, IUFRO World Series, vol 38. International Union of Forest Research Organizations [IUFRO], Vienna. 192pGoogle Scholar
  48. Creed IF, Spargo AT, Jones JA, Buttle JM, Adams MB, Beall FD et al (2014) Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: Results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America. Global Change Biol 20:3191–3208.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cristiano PM, Campanello PI, Bucci SJ, Rodriguez SA, Lezcano OA, Scholz FG et al (2015) Evapotranspiration of subtropical forests and tree plantations: a comparative analysis at different temporal and spatial scales. Agr Forest Meteorol 203:96–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. D’Amato AW, Bradford JB, Fraver S, Palik BJ (2011) Forest management for mitigation and adaptation to climate change: insights from long-term silviculture experiments. Forest Ecol Manag 262:803–816.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD et al (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51:723–734.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0723,CCAFD]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Daniel CJ, Ter-Mikaelian MT, Wotton BM, Rayfield B, Fortin MJ (2017) Incorporating uncertainty into forest management planning: timber harvest, wildfire and climate change in the boreal forest. Forest Ecol Manag 400:542–554.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. de Groot M, Ogris N, Kobler A (2018) The effects of a large-scale ice storm event on the drivers of bark beetle outbreaks and associated management practices. Forest Ecol Manag 408:195–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.10.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Debortoli NS, Dubreuil V, Hirota M, Lindoso DP, Nabucet J (2017) Detecting deforestation impacts in Southern Amazonia rainfall using rain gauges. Int J Climatol 37:2889–2900.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dhar A, Parrott L, Hawkins CD (2016a) Aftermath of mountain pine beetle outbreak in British Columbia: stand dynamics, management response and ecosystem resilience. Forests 7:171.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f7080171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dhar A, Parrott L, Heckbert S (2016b) Consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreak on forest ecosystem services in western Canada. Can J For Res 46:987–999.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2016-0137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ding Y, Wang Z, Song Y, Zhang J (2008) Causes of the unprecedented freezing disaster in January 2008 and its possible association with the global warming (in Chinese). Acta Meteorol Sin 4: 14 pGoogle Scholar
  58. Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RP (1996) Soil hydrophobicity variations with depth and particle size fraction in burned and unburned Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest terrain in the Agueda Basin, Portugal. Catena 27:25–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0341-8162(96)00007-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Doughty CE, Malhi Y, Araujo-Murakami A, Metcalfe DB, Silva-Espejo JE, Arroyo L et al (2014) Allocation trade-offs dominate the response of tropical forest growth to seasonal and interannual drought. Ecology 95:2192–2201.  https://doi.org/10.1890/13-1507.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Du Toit B, Gush MB, Pryke JS, Samways MJ, Dovey SB (2014) Ecological impacts of biomass production at stand and landscape levels. In: Seifert T (ed) Bioenergy from wood: sustainable production in the tropics, Managing forest ecosystems, vol 26. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 211–236.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7448-3_10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Duan K, Sun G, Sun S, Caldwell PV, Cohen EC, McNulty SG, Aldridge HD, Zhang Y (2016) Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and grasslands under a changing climate. Sci Rep-UK 6:24441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Duinker PN, Ordόñez C, Steenberg JWN, Miller KH, Toni SA, Nitoslawski SA (2015) Trees in Canadian cities: an indispensable life form for urban sustainability. Sustainability 7:7379–7396.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su7067379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dunn CJ, Bailey JD (2016) Tree mortality and structural change following mixed-severity fire in Pseudotsuga forests of Oregon’s western Cascades, USA. Forest Ecol Manag 365:107–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.01.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dye PJ, Bosch JM (2000) Sustained water yield in afforested catchments – the South African experience. In: von Gadow K, Pukkala T, Tomé M (eds) Sustainable forest management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 99–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-9819-9_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dye PJ, Versfeld D (2007) Managing the hydrological impacts of South African plantation forests: an overview. Forest Ecol Manag 251:121–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dyer EL, Jones DB, Nusbaumer J, Li H, Collins O, Vettoretti G, Noone D (2017) Congo Basin precipitation: assessing seasonality, regional interactions, and sources of moisture. J Geophys Res- Atmos 122:6882–6898.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD026240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Dzikiti S, Gush MB, Le Maitre DC, Maherry A, Jovanovic NJ, Ramoelo A et al (2016) Quantifying potential water savings from clearing invasive alien Eucalyptus camaldulensis using in situ and high resolution remote sensing data in the Berg River Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa. Forest Ecol Manag 361:69–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.11.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ellison D (2018) From myth to concept and beyond – the biogeophysical revolution and the forest-water paradigm, UNFF13 Background Analytical Study 2 on Forests and Water, report commissioned for the thirteenth session of the United Nations Forum on Forests, AprilGoogle Scholar
  69. Ellison D, Futter MN, Bishop K (2012) On the forest cover–water yield debate: from demand-to supply-side thinking. Global Change Biol 18:806–820.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02589.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ellison D, Morris CE, Locatelli B, Sheil D, Cohen J, Murdiyarso D et al (2017) Trees, forests and water: cool insights for a hot world. Global Environ Change 43:51–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Emanuel RE, Buckley JJ, Caldwell PV, McNulty SG, Sun G (2015) Influence of basin characteristics on the effectiveness and downstream reach of interbasin water transfers: displacing a problem. Environ Res Lett 10:124005.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. FAO (2015) Global forest resources assessment 2015, FAO forestry paper no. 1. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  73. Farley KA, Jobbágy EG, Jackson RB (2005) Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy. Global Change Biol 11:1565–1576.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01011.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Filoso S, Bezerra MO, Weiss KC, Palmer MA (2017) Impacts of forest restoration on water yield: a systematic review. PloS One 12:e0183210.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ford CR, Hubbard RM, Vose JM (2011) Quantifying structural and physiological controls on variation in canopy transpiration among planted pine and hardwood species in the southern Appalachians. Ecohydrology 4:183–195.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Forrester DI (2015) Transpiration and water-use efficiency in mixed-species forests versus monocultures: effects of tree size, stand density and season. Tree Physiol 35:289–304.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpv011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Foster DR (1988) Species and stand response to catastrophic wind in central New England, USA. J Ecol 76:135–151.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2260458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Foster DR, Boose ER (1992) Patterns of forest damage resulting from catastrophic wind in central New England, USA. J Ecol 80:79–98.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2261065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Foster DR, Knight DH, Franklin JF (1998) Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosystems 1:497–510.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100219900046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fox TR, Jokela EJ, Allen HL (2004) The evolution of pine plantation silviculture in the southern United States. In: Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS 75. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, AshevilleGoogle Scholar
  81. Gebrehiwot SG, Seibert J, Gardenas AI, Mellander P-E, Bishop K (2013) Hydrological change detection using modeling: Half a century of runoff from four rivers in the Blue Nile Basin. Water Resour Res 49:3842–3851.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gebrehiwot SG, Ellison D, Bewket W, Seleshi Y, Inogwabini BI, Bishop K (2019) The Nile Basin waters and the West African rainforest: rethinking the boundaries. WIRES Water 6:e1317.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gedney N, Cox PM, Betts RA, Boucher O, Huntingford C, Stott PA (2006) Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records. Nature 439:835–838.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04504 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gimbel KF (2016) Does drought alter hydrological functions in forest soils? Hydro Earth Syst Sci 20:1301–1317.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-1301-2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Granier A, Loustau D, Bréda N (2000) A generic model of forest canopy conductance dependent on climate, soil water availability and leaf area index. Ann For Sci 57:755–765.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2000158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X et al (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1150195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Groffman PM, Rustad LE, Templer PH, Campbell JL, Christenson LM, Lany NK et al (2012) Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in the northern hardwood forest. BioScience 62:1056–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.12.7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Guardiola-Claramonte M, Troch PA, Ziegler AD, Giambelluca TW, Durcik M, Vogler JB et al (2010) Hydrologic effects of the expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in a tropical catchment. Ecohydrology 3:306–314.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gush MB (2010) Assessing hydrological impacts of tree-based bioenergy feedstock. In: Amezaga JM, von Maltitz G, Boyes S (eds) Assessing the sustainability of bioenergy projects in developing countries: a framework for policy evaluation. Newcastle University Press, Newcastle, pp 37–52Google Scholar
  90. Gush MB, Scott DF, Jewitt GPW, Schulze RE, Hallowes LA, Gorgens AHM (2002) A new approach to modelling streamflow reductions resulting from commercial afforestation in South Africa. S Afr For J 196:27–36.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20702620.2002.10434615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gyenge J, Fernández ME, Sarasola M, Schlichter T (2008) Testing a hypothesis of the relationship between productivity and water use efficiency in Patagonian forests with native and exotic species. Forest Ecol Manag 255:3281–3287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hallema DW, Sun G, Bladon KD, Norman SP, Caldwell PV, Liu Y et al (2017) Regional patterns of postwildfire streamflow response in the Western United States: the importance of scale-specific connectivity. Hydrol Process 31:2582–2598.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hallema DW, Sun G, Caldwell PV, Norman SP, Cohen EC, Liu Y et al (2018) Burned forests impact water supplies. Nat Commun 9:1307.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03735-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hamburg SP, Vadeboncoeur MA, Richardson AD, Bailey AS (2013) Climate change at the ecosystem scale: a 50-year record in New Hampshire. Clim Change 116:457–477.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0517-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova S, Tyukavina A et al (2013) High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342:850–853.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Harmon ME, Ferrell WK, Franklin JF (1990) Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science 247:699–702.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.247.4943.699 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Harr RD (1986) Effects of clearcutting on rain-on-snow runoff in Western Oregon: a new look at old studies. Water Resour Res 22:1095–1100.  https://doi.org/10.1029/WR022i007p01095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hatcher KL, Jones JA (2013) Climate and streamflow trends in the Columbia River Basin: evidence for ecological and engineering resilience to climate change. Atmos Ocean 51:436–455.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.2013.808167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hauer RJ, Hruska MC, Dawson JO (1994) Trees and ice storms: The development of ice storm–resistant urban tree populations. Special Publication 94-1. Department of Forestry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  100. Henry JD, Swan JMA (1974) Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material--an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55:772–783.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1934413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hibbert AR (1965) Forest treatment effects on water yield. Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, AshevilleGoogle Scholar
  102. Hibbert AR (1967) Forest treatment effects on water yield. In: Sopper WE, Lul HW (eds) International symposium of Forest hydrology. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 527–543Google Scholar
  103. Hickler T, Smith B, Prentice IC, Mjöfors K, Miller P, Arneth A et al (2008) CO2 fertilization in temperate FACE experiments not representative of boreal and tropical forests. Glob Change Biol 14:1531–1542.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01598.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hinzman LD, Bettez ND, Bolton WR, Chapin FS, Dyurgerov MB, Fastie CL et al (2005) Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Clim Change 72:251–298.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-5352-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Holtum JA, Winter K (2010) Elevated [CO2] and forest vegetation: more a water issue than a carbon issue? Funct Plant Biol 37:694–702.  https://doi.org/10.1071/FP10001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Houlton BZ, Driscoll CT (2011) The effects of ice storms on the hydrology and biogeochemistry of forests. In: Levia DF, Carlyle-Moses D, Tanaka T (eds) Forest hydrology and biogeochemistry. Springer Science & Business Media, Heidelberg, pp 623–641.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1363-5_31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hua L, Zhong L, Ke Z (2016) Precipitation recycling and soil–precipitation interaction across the arid and semi-arid regions of China. Int J Climatol 36:3708–3722.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4586 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Huntington TG (2006) Evidence for intensification of the global water cycle: review and synthesis. J Hydrol 319:83–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ilstedt U, Tobella AB, Bazié HR, Bayala J, Verbeeten E, Nyberg G et al (2016) Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics. Sci Rep 6:21930.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21930 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Irland LC (2000) Ice storms and forest impacts. Sci Total Environ 262:231–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00525-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Isaacs RE, Stueve KM, Lafon CW, Taylor AH (2014) Ice storms generate spatially heterogeneous damage patterns at the watershed scale in forested landscapes. Ecosphere 5:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1890/ES14-00234.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. IUFRO (2018) Global fire challenges in a warming world. In: Robinne F-N, Burns J, Kant P, de Groot B, Flannigan MD, Kleine M, Wotton DM (eds) Occasional paper no. 32. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), Vienna. https://www.iufro.org/news/article/2019/01/23/occasional-paper-32-global-fire-challenges-in-a-warming-world/ Google Scholar
  113. Iverson LR, Hutchinson TF, Peters MP, Yaussy DA (2017) Long-term response of oak-hickory regeneration to partial harvest and repeated fires: influence of light and moisture. Ecosphere 8:e01642.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1642 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Jackson RB, Jobbágy EG, Avissar R, Roy SB, Barrett DJ, Cook CW et al (2005) Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration. Science 310:1944–1947.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1119282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Jones JA (2000) Hydrologic processes and peak discharge response to forest removal, regrowth, and roads in 10 small experimental basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resour Res 36:2621–2642.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jones JA (2011) Hydrologic responses to climate change: considering geographic context and alternative hypotheses. Hydrol Process 25:1996–2000.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jones JA, Grant GE (1996) Peak flow responses to clear-cutting and roads in small and large basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resour Res 32:959–974.  https://doi.org/10.1029/95WR03493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jones JA, Perkins RM (2010) Extreme flood sensitivity to snow and forest harvest, western Cascades, Oregon, United States. Water Resour Res 46:W12512.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jones JA, Post DA (2004) Seasonal and successional streamflow response to forest cutting and regrowth in the northwest and eastern United States. Water Resour Res 40:W05203.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002952 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jones JB, Rinehart AJ (2010) The long-term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska. Can J For Res 40:1210–1218.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X10-047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jones JA, Achterman GL, Augustine LA, Creed IF, Ffolliott PF, MacDonald L et al (2009) Hydrologic effects of a changing forested landscape—challenges for the hydrological sciences. Hydrol Process 23:2699–2704.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jones JA, Creed IF, Hatcher KL, Warren RJ, Adams MB, Benson MH et al (2012) Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at long-term ecological research sites. BioScience 62:390–404.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.4.10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jones JA, Almeida A, Cisneros F, Iroumé A, Jobbágy E, Lara A et al (2017) Forests and water in South America. Hydrol Process 31:972–980.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jorgenson MT, Romanovsky V, Harden J, Shur Y, O’Donnell J, Schuur EA et al (2010) Resilience and vulnerability of permafrost to climate change. Can J For Res 40:1219–1236.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X10-060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jung M, Reichstein M, Ciais P, Seneviratne SI, Sheffield J, Goulden ML et al (2010) Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature 467:951–954.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kerhoulas LP, Kolb TE, Koch GW (2013) Tree size, stand density, and the source of water used across seasons by ponderosa pine in northern Arizona. Forest Ecol Manag 289:425–433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.10.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Keys PW, Wang-Erlandsson L, Gordon LJ (2016) Revealing invisible water: moisture recycling as an ecosystem service. PloS One 11:e0151993.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kim J, Hwang T, Schaaf CL, Orwig DA, Boose E, Munger JW (2017) Increased water yield due to the hemlock woolly adelgid infestation in New England. Geophys Res Lett 44:2327–2335.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL072327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kimmins JP, Blanco JA, Seely B, Welham C, Scoullar K (2010) Forecasting forest futures: a hybrid modelling approach to the assessment of sustainability of forest ecosystems and their values. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  130. Kinoshita AM, Hogue TS (2011) Spatial and temporal controls on post-fire hydrologic recovery in Southern California watersheds. Catena 87:240–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Knapp AK, Beier C, Briske DD, Classen AT, Luo Y, Reichstein M et al (2008) Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems. BioScience 58:811–821.  https://doi.org/10.1641/B580908 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kong Y, Pang Z (2016) A positive altitude gradient of isotopes in the precipitation over the Tianshan Mountains: effects of moisture recycling and sub-cloud evaporation. J Hydrol 542:222–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kopp BJ, Lange J, Menzel L (2017) Effects of wildfire on runoff generating processes in northern Mongolia. Reg Environ Change 17:1951–1963.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-0962-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kramer MG, Hansen AJ, Taper ML, Kissinger EJ (2001) Abiotic controls on long-term windthrow disturbance and temperate rain forest dynamics in southeast Alaska. Ecology 82:2749–2768.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[2749,ACOLTW]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kurz WA, Dymond CC, Stinson G, Rampley GJ, Neilson ET, Carroll AL et al (2008) Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature 452:987–990.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06777 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. La Marche JL, Lettenmaier DP (2001) Effects of forest roads on flood flows in the Deschutes River, Washington. Earth Surf Process Land 26:115–134.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200102)26:2<115::AID-ESP166>3.0.CO;2-O CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Laseter SH, Ford CR, Vose JM, Swift LW (2012) Long-term temperature and precipitation trends at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Otto, North Carolina, USA. Hydrol Res 43:890–901.  https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.2012.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lawrence D, Vandecar K (2015) Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture. Nat Clim Change 5:27–36.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2430 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Le Maitre DC, Gush MB, Dzikiti S (2015) Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales. AoB Plants 7:plv043.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Lechuga V, Carraro V, Viñegla B, Carreira JA, Linares JC (2017) Managing drought-sensitive forests under global change. Low competition enhances long-term growth and water uptake in Abies pinsapo. Forest Ecol Manag 406:72–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.10.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lertzman K, Spies T, Swanson F (1997) From ecosystem dynamics to ecosystem management. In: Schoonmaker PK, von Hagen B, Wolf EC (eds) The rain forests of home: profile of a North American bioregion. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  142. Li Q, Wei X, Zhang M, Liu W, Fan H, Zhou G et al (2017) Forest cover change and water yield in large forested watersheds: a global synthetic assessment. Ecohydrology 10:e1838.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1838 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Li Q, Wei X, Zhang M, Liu W, Giles-Hansen K, Wang Y (2018) The cumulative effects of forest disturbance and climate variability on streamflow components in a large forest-dominated watershed. J Hydrol 557:448–459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.12.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lin Y, Wei X (2008) The impact of large-scale forest harvesting on hydrology in the Willow Watershed of Central British Columbia. J Hydrol 359:141–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.06.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lindner M, Maroschek M, Netherer S, Kremer A, Barbati A, Garcia-Gonzalo J et al (2010) Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems. Forest Ecol Manag 259:698–709.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Lindner M, Fitzgerald JB, Zimmermann NE, Reyer C, Delzon S, van der Maaten E et al (2014) Climate change and European forests: what do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management? J Environ Manag 146:69–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Liu W, Wei X, Liu S, Liu Y, Fan H, Zhang M et al (2015) How do climate and forest changes affect long-term streamflow dynamics? a case study in the upper reach of Poyang River basin. Ecohydrology 8:46–57.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lorimer CG (1977) The presettlement forest and natural disturbance cycle of northeastern Maine. Ecology 58:139–148.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1935115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lovejoy TE, Nobre C (2018) Amazon tipping point. Sci Adv 4:eaat2340.  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat2340 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lundmark T, Poudel BC, Stål G, Nordin A, Sonesson J (2018) Carbon balance in production forestry in relation to rotation length. Can J For Res 48:672–678.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2017-0410 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Luyssaert S, Schulze ED, Börner A, Knohl A, Hessenmöller D, Law BE et al (2008) Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455:213–215.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ma X, Xu J, Luo Y, Prasad Aggarwal S, Li J (2009) Response of hydrological processes to land-cover and climate changes in Kejie watershed, south-west China. Hydrol Process 23:1179–1191.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mansourian S, Stanturf JA, Derkyi MAA, Engel VL (2017) Forest Landscape Restoration: increasing the positive impacts of forest restoration or simply the area under tree cover? Restor Ecol 25:178–183.  https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12489 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McDonnell JJ, Evaristo J, Bladon KD, Buttle J, Creed IF, Dymond SF et al (2018) Water sustainability and watershed storage. Nat Sustain 1:378–379.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0099-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. McDowell NG, Allen CD (2015) Darcy’s law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming. Nat Clim Change 5:669–672.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2641 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. McNulty SG, Boggs JL, Sun G (2014) The rise of the mediocre forest: why chronically stressed trees may better survive extreme episodic climate variability. New Forest 45:403–415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-014-9410-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. McNulty S, Cohen E, Sun G, Caldwell P (2016) Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study. In: Lachassagne P, Lafforgue M (eds) Forest and the water cycle: quantity, quality, management. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, pp 181–203Google Scholar
  158. McNulty SG, Boggs JL, Aber JD, Rustad LE (2017) Spruce-fir forest changes during a 30-year nitrogen saturation experiment. Sci Total Environ 605–606:376–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. McVicar TR, Roderick ML, Donohue RJ, Li LT, Van Niel TG, Thomas A et al (2012) Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: implications for evaporation. J Hydrol 416:182–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. MEA [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment] (2005) Ecosystems and human wellbeing: framework for assessment. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  161. Meijninger WML, Jarmain C (2014) Satellite-based annual evaporation estimates of invasive alien plant species and native vegetation in South Africa. Water SA 40:95–107.  https://doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v40i1.12 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Millar CI, Stephenson NL, Stephens SL (2007) Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecol Appl 17:2145–2151.  https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1715.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Mitchell RG, Waring RH, Pitman GB (1983) Thinning lodgepole pine increases tree vigor and resistance to mountain pine beetle. For Sci 29:204–211.  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestscience/29.1.204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Montes-Helu MC, Kolb T, Dore S, Sullivan B, Hart SC, Koch G et al (2009) Persistent effects of fire-induced vegetation change on energy partitioning and evapotranspiration in ponderosa pine forests. Agric Forest Meteorol 149:491–500.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.09.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Moore RD, Wondzell SM (2005) Physical hydrology and the effects of forest harvesting in the Pacific Northwest: a review. J Am Water Resour Assoc 41:763–784.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2005.tb03770.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Moore GW, Bond BJ, Jones JA, Phillips N, Meinzer FC (2004) Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40-and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA. Tree Physiol 24:481–491.  https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/24.5.481 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Moore GW, Bond BJ, Jones JA (2011a) A comparison of annual transpiration and productivity in monoculture and mixed-species Douglas-fir and red alder stands. For Ecol Manag 262:2263–2270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Moore GW, Jones JA, Bond BJ (2011b) How soil moisture mediates the influence of transpiration on streamflow at hourly to interannual scales in a forested catchment. Hydrol Process 25:3701–3710.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mutegi JK, Mugendi DN, Verchot LV, Kung’u JB (2008) Combining napier grass with leguminous shrubs in contour hedgerows controls soil erosion without competing with crops. Agroforest Syst 74:37–49.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-008-9152-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Naranjo JB, Weiler M, Stahl K (2011) Sensitivity of a data-driven soil water balance model to estimate summer evapotranspiration along a forest chronosequence. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 15:3461–3472.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-3461-2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Neary DG, Ryan KC, DeBano LF (2005) Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on soils and water. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol, 4, 250 pGoogle Scholar
  172. Nnyamah JU, Black TA (1977) Rates and patterns of water uptake in a Douglas-fir forest. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:972–979.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1977.03615995004100050033x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Nobre AD, Oyama MD, Oliveira GS (2014) The future climate of Amazonia. Scientific Assessment Report. Articulación Regional Amazonica (ARA), São José dos Campos. Retrieved from: http://www.ccst.inpe.br/wpcontent/uploads/2014/11/The_Future_Climate_of_Amazonia_Report.pdf
  174. Norby RJ, Zak DR (2011) Ecological lessons from free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 42:181–203.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102209-144647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Norby RJ, Warren JM, Iversen CM, Medlyn BE, McMurtrie RE (2010) CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19368–19373.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006463107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. NY EPA [New York Environmental Protection Agency] (2015) New York City drinking water supply and quality report. New York Environmental Protection Agency, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  177. O’Halloran TL, Law BE, Goulden ML, Wang Z, Barr JG, Schaaf C et al (2012) Radiative forcing of natural forest disturbances. Glob Change Biol 18:555–565.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02577.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Oliveras I, Gracia M, Moré G, Retana J (2009) Factors influencing the pattern of fire severities in a large wildfire under extreme meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean basin. Int J Wildland Fire 18:755–764.  https://doi.org/10.1071/WF08070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ong C, Black CR, Wilson J, Muthuri C, Bayala J, Jackson NA (2014) Agroforestry: hydrological impacts. In: Van Alfen NK (ed) Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems, vol 1, 2nd edn. Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  180. Overpeck JT, Rind D, Goldberg R (1990) Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation. Nature 343:51–53.  https://doi.org/10.1038/343051a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Ow LF, Ghosh S (2017) Urban tree growth and their dependency on infiltration rates in structural soil and structural cells. Urban For Urban Green 26:41–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2017.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Pavlidis G, Tsihrintzis VA (2018) Environmental benefits and control of pollution to surface water and groundwater by agroforestry systems: a review. Water Resour Manag 32:1–29.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-017-1805-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Payn T, Carnus JM, Freer-Smith P, Kimberley M, Kollert W, Liu S et al (2015) Changes in planted forests and future global implications. For Ecol Manag 352:57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Peña-Arancibia JL, Bruijnzeel LA, Mulligan M, van Dijk AI (2019) Forests as ‘sponges’ and ‘pumps’: assessing the impact of deforestation on dry-season flows across the tropics. J Hydrol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.04.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Penn CA, Bearup LA, Maxwell RM, Clow DW (2016) Numerical experiments to explain multiscale hydrological responses to mountain pine beetle tree mortality in a headwater watershed. Water Resour Res 52:3143–3161.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR018300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Perry TD, Jones JA (2017) Summer streamflow deficits from regenerating Douglas-fir forest in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Ecohydrology 10:e1790.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1790 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Piao S, Friedlingstein P, Ciais P, de Noblet-Ducoudré N, Labat D, Zaehle S (2007) Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO2 on global river runoff trends. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15242–15247.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0707213104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Redding T, Winkler R, Teti P, Spittlehouse D, Boon S, Rex J et al (2008) Mountain pine beetle and watershed hydrology. BC J Ecosyst Manag 9:33–50Google Scholar
  189. Reed DE, Ewers BE, Pendall E (2014) Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes. Environ Res Lett 9:105004.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/105004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Riggan PJ, Lockwood RN, Jacks PM, Colver CG, Weirich F, DeBano LF et al (1994) Effects of fire severity on nitrate mobilization in watersheds subject to chronic atmospheric deposition. Environ Sci Technol 28:369–375.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00052a005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Galbraith DR, Oliveira RS, Binks OJ, Oliveira AAR et al (2015) Death from drought in tropical forests is triggered by hydraulics not carbon starvation. Nature 528:119–122.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15539 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Rustad LE, Campbell JL (2012) A novel ice storm manipulation experiment in a northern hardwood forest. Can J For Res 42:1810–1818.  https://doi.org/10.1139/X2012-120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Sanders RA (1986) Urban vegetation impacts on the hydrology of Dayton, Ohio. Urban Ecol 9:361–376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4009(86)90009-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Sanusi R, Johnstone D, May P, Livesley SJ (2017) Microclimate benefits that different street tree species provide to sidewalk pedestrians relate to differences in Plant Area Index. Landsc Urban Plan 157:502–511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Schelhaas MJ, Nabuurs GJ, Schuck A (2003) Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Glob Change Biol 9:1620–1633.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00684.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Scherrer D, Massy S, Meier S, Vittoz P, Guisan A (2017) Assessing and predicting shifts in mountain forest composition across 25 years of climate change. Divers Distrib 23:517–528.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Scholz M, Grabowiecki P (2007) Review of permeable pavement systems. Build Environ 42:3830–3836.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Schwendenmann L, Pendall E, Sanchez-Bragado R, Kunert N, Hölscher D (2015) Tree water uptake in a tropical plantation varying in tree diversity: interspecific differences, seasonal shifts and complementarity. Ecohydrology 8:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Scott DF, Prinsloo FW (2008) Longer-term effects of pine and eucalypt plantations on streamflow. Water Resour Res 44:W00A08.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006781 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Scott DF, Smith RE (1997) Preliminary empirical models to predict reductions in total and low-flows resulting from afforestation. Water SA 23:135–140Google Scholar
  201. Scott DF, Bruijnzeel LA, Vertessy RA, Calder IR, Burley J, Evans J et al (2004) Impacts of forest plantations on streamflow. In: Encyclopedia of forest sciences, pp 367–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-145160-7/00272-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Seitz J, Escobedo F (2011) Urban forests in Florida: trees control stormwater runoff and improve water quality. City 393(6) University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Document No FOR184. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/
  203. Shuster WD, Bonta J, Thurston H, Warnemuende E, Smith DR (2005) Impacts of impervious surface on watershed hydrology: a review. Urban Water J 2:263–275.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15730620500386529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Silva LC, Anand M (2013) Probing for the influence of atmospheric CO2 and climate change on forest ecosystems across biomes. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 22:83–92.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2012.00783.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Sinton DS, Jones JA, Ohmann JL, Swanson FJ (2000) Windthrow disturbance, forest composition, and structure in the Bull Run basin, Oregon. Ecology 81:2539–2556.  https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2539,WDFCAS]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Spera SA, Galford GL, Coe MT, Macedo MN, Mustard JF (2016) Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil’s last agricultural frontier. Glob Change Biol 22:3405–3413.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Spracklen DV, Garcia-Carreras L (2015) The impact of Amazonian deforestation on Amazon basin rainfall. Geophys Res Lett 42:9546–9552.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Staal A, Tuinenburg OA, Bosmans JH, Holmgren M, van Nes EH, Scheffer M et al (2018) Forest-rainfall cascades buffer against drought across the Amazon. Nat Clim Change 8:539–543.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0177-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Stephenson NL, Das AJ, Condit R, Russo SE, Baker PJ, Beckman NG et al (2014) Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size. Nature 507:90–93.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12914 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Stocks BJ, Fosberg MA, Lynham TJ, Mearns L, Wotton BM, Yang Q et al (1998) Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests. Clim Change 38:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005306001055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Swank WT, Vose JM, Elliott KJ (2001) Long-term hydrologic and water quality responses following commercial clearcutting of mixed hardwoods on a southern Appalachian catchment. For Ecol Manag 143:163–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00515-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. United Nations (2016) The World’s cities in 2016. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Vailshery LS, Jaganmohan M, Nagendra H (2013) Effect of street trees on microclimate and air pollution in a tropical city. Urban For Urban Green 12:408–415.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2013.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Van der Ent RJ, Savenije HH, Schaefli B, Steele-Dunne SC (2010) Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents. Water Resour Res 46:W09525.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. van Lierop P, Lindquist E, Sathyapala S, Franceschini G (2015) Global forest area disturbance from fire, insect pests, diseases and severe weather events. For Ecol Manag 352:78–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Van Mantgem PJ, Stephenson NL, Byrne JC, Daniels LD, Franklin JF, Fulé PZ et al (2009) Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323:521–524.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1165000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Van Nieuwstadt MG, Sheil D (2005) Drought, fire and tree survival in a Borneo rain forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. J Ecol 93(1):191–201.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2004.00954.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. van Noordwijk M, Namirembe S, Catacutan D, Williamson D, Gebrekirstos A (2014) Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections. Curr Opin Environ Sust 6:41–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. van Noordwijk M, Leimona B, Xing M, Tanika L, Namirembe S, Suprayogo D (2015) Water-focused landscape management. In: Minang PA, van Noordwijk M, Freeman OE, Mbow C, Leeuw JD, Catacutan D (eds) Climate-smart landscapes: multifunctionality in practice. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  220. van Noordwijk M, Tanika L, Lusiana B (2017) Flood risk reduction and flow buffering as ecosystem services–part 1: theory on flow persistence, flashiness and base flow. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 21(5):2321–2340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. van Noordwijk M, Bargues-Tobella A, Muthuri CW, Gebrekirstos A, Maimbo M, Leimona B, Bayala J, Ma X, Lasco R, Xu J, Ong CK (2019) Agroforestry as part of nature-based water management. In: van Noordwijk M (ed) Sustainable development through trees on farms: agroforestry in its fifth decade. World agroforestry (ICRAF). Bogor, Indonesia, pp 261–287Google Scholar
  222. Vanderhoof M, Williams CA, Shuai Y, Jarvis D, Kulakowski D, Masek J (2014) Albedo-induced radiative forcing from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in forests, south-central Rocky Mountains: magnitude, persistence, and relation to outbreak severity. Biogeosciences 11:563–575.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-563-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Vieira DCS, Fernández C, Vega JA, Keizer JJ (2015) Does soil burn severity affect the post-fire runoff and interrill erosion response? a review based on meta-analysis of field rainfall simulation data. J Hydrol 523:452–464.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.01.071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Vose JM, Miniat CF, Luce CH, Asbjornsen H, Caldwell PV, Campbell JL et al (2016) Ecohydrological implications of drought for forests in the United States. For Ecol Manag 380:335–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.03.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Waring RH (1982) Estimating forest growth and efficiency in relation to canopy leaf area. Adv Ecol Res 13:327–354.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60111-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Wei X, Li Q, Zhang M, Giles-Hansen K, Liu W, Fan H, Wang Y et al (2018) Vegetation cover—another dominant factor in determining global water resources in forested regions. Glob Change Biol 24:786–795.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13983 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Weiler M, Scheffler C, Tautz A, Rosin K (2009) Development of a hydrologic process model for mountain pine beetle affected areas in British Columbia. Institut für Hydrologie, Universität Freiburg, FreiburgGoogle Scholar
  228. Wemple BC, Jones JA (2003) Runoff production on forest roads in a steep, mountain catchment. Water Resour Res 39:1220.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002WR001744 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Wemple BC, Swanson FJ, Jones JA (2001) Forest roads and geomorphic process interactions, Cascade Range, Oregon. Earth Surf Process Land 26:191–204.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200102)26:2<191::AID-ESP175>3.0.CO;2-U CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Weng W, Luedeke MK, Zemp DC, Lakes T, Kropp JP (2018) Aerial and surface rivers: downwind impacts on water availability from land use changes in Amazonia. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 22:911–927.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-911-2018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Westerling AL (2016) Increasing western US forest wildfire activity: sensitivity to changes in the timing of spring. Philos Trans Royal Soc B 371:20150178.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. White JC, Wulder MA, Hermosilla T, Coops NC, Hobart GW (2017) A nationwide annual characterization of 25 years of forest disturbance and recovery for Canada using Landsat time series. Remote Sens Environ 194:303–321.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration, and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692–700.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x84-124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Winkler R, Boon S, Zimonick B, Spittlehouse D (2014) Snow accumulation and ablation response to changes in forest structure and snow surface albedo after attack by mountain pine beetle. Hydrol Process 28:197–209.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wramneby A, Smith B, Samuelsson P (2010) Hot spots of vegetation-climate feedbacks under future greenhouse forcing in Europe. J Geophys Res- Atmos 115:D21.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Wright JS, Fu R, Worden JR, Chakraborty S, Clinton NE, Risi C et al (2017) Rainforest-initiated wet season onset over the southern Amazon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:8481–8486.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1621516114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Wu J, Liu W, Chen C (2017) How do plants share water sources in a rubber-tea agroforestry system during the pronounced dry season? Agric Ecosyst Environ 236:69–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2016.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zhang M, Wei X (2014) Alteration of flow regimes caused by large-scale forest disturbance: a case study from a large watershed in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Ecohydrology 7:544–556.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zhang L, Dawes WR, Walker GR (1999) Predicting the effect of vegetation changes on catchment average water balance. CSIRO Technical Report 99/12, CRC for Catchment Hydrology. CSIRO, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhang L, Dawes WR, Walker GR (2001) Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale. Water Resour Res 37:701–708.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900325 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Zhang MF, Liu N, Harper R, Li Q, Liu K, Wei X et al (2017) A global review on hydrological responses to forest change across multiple spatial scales: importance of scale, climate, forest type and hydrological regime. J Hydrol 546:44–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.12.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Zhang J, Bruijnzeel LA, Quiñones CM, Tripoli R, Asio VB, van Meerveld HJ (2019a) Soil physical characteristics of a degraded tropical grassland and a ‘reforest’: implications for runoff generation. Geoderma 333:163–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.07.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zhang J, Bruijnzeel LA, Tripoli R, van Meerveld HJ (2019b) Water budget and run‐off response of a tropical multispecies “reforest” and effects of typhoon disturbance. Ecohydrology 12(2): e2055.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.2055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Zhou G, Liu S, Li Z, Zhang D, Tang X, Zhou C et al (2006) Old-growth forests can accumulate carbon in soils. Science 314:1417.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1130168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Zomer RJ, Neufeldt H, Xu J, Ahrends A, Bossio D, Trabucco A et al (2016) Global tree cover and biomass carbon on agricultural land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets. Sci Rep 6:29987.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29987 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia A. Jones
    • 1
  • Xiaohua Wei
    • 2
  • Emma Archer
    • 3
  • Kevin Bishop
    • 4
  • Juan A. Blanco
    • 5
  • David Ellison
    • 6
  • Mark B. Gush
    • 7
  • Steven G. McNulty
    • 8
  • Meine van Noordwijk
    • 9
  • Irena F. Creed
    • 10
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS)Oregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Earth, Environmental and Geographical SciencesUniversity of British Columbia (UBC)KelownaCanada
  3. 3.Centre for Environmental Studies/Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and MeteorologyUniversity of PretoriaHatfieldSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Aquatic Sciences and AssessmentSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  5. 5.Departamento de Ciencias, Universidad Publica de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  6. 6.External Expert ConsultantZurichSwitzerland
  7. 7.Science & CollectionsRoyal Horticultural SocietyLondonUK
  8. 8.USDA Forest Service, Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment CenterRaleighUSA
  9. 9.World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)Indonesia Wageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  10. 10.School of Environment and Sustainability (SENS)University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations