Positive Directions for Reform

  • Mohammed Akacem
  • Dennis Dixon Miller
  • John Leonard Faulkner


Reforms that would empower citizens, promote inclusive economic and political institutions, improve the business climate, and help MENA’s economies thrive include:
  • Adopt our proposed Citizen Empowerment Plan (CEP) where citizens own the oil and revenues are distributed directly to the citizens.

  • Reduce the reliance on oil and diversify away from oil.

  • Tailor education to develop new comparative advantages.

  • Move towards more transparency and accountability.

  • Reduce military expenditures.

  • Reduce government employment.

  • Improve youth employment.

  • Empower women and reduce population growth.

Adopting the CEP as described in the previous chapter would facilitate these reforms. However, it is a chicken and egg problem. These reforms are needed in order to adopt the CEP, but the CEP is needed to adopt the reforms. Therefore, incentives needed for autocrats to make reforms and transfer ownership of oil to the citizens include but are not limited to the following:
  • More publicizing of indices, ratings, and rankings

  • Contingent international aid, finance, and loans

  • Oil sanctions

  • Membership and status in international and MENA organizations

  • Empowering the citizens with a sense of resource ownership to insure government accountability

  • Taxing and repatriating the assets in countries outside of MENA owned by autocrats and their cronies

  • Adoption of constitutional monarchies and truly representative governments with clear separation of powers and press freedom

  • Realization that the status quo is unsustainable


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Akacem
    • 1
  • Dennis Dixon Miller
    • 2
  • John Leonard Faulkner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Economics Campus Box 77Metropolitan State University of DenverDenverUSA
  2. 2.Baldwin Wallace UniversityBereaUSA
  3. 3.ArlingtonUSA

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