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Muscle and Bone Biology – Similarities and Differences

  • Joseph Elphingstone
  • Mark W. HamrickEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Muscle and bone are similar in many ways, and factors that can stimulate anabolism or catabolism in one of these tissues may have the same effect(s) either directly or indirectly on the other tissue. Factors that may enhance the mass and strength of both tissues include pleiotropic genes such as Methyltransferase-Like Protein 21C (METTL21C) and Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C (MEF2C), hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), dietary amino acids, resident populations of mesenchymal stem cells (e.g., satellite cells and bone marrow derived stem cells [BMSCs]) and resistance exercise early in life. Shared mechanisms of tissue loss and dysfunction include fatty infiltration, cellular senescence, and molecules such as myostatin that can drive both muscle and bone loss. Important differences between these two tissues include the decoupling of muscle and bone patterning early in limb development, contrasting mechanotransduction pathways (e.g., wnt signaling in bone and p70S6K signaling in muscle), and contrasting bone geometry between males and females and between the upper and lower limb relative to lean mass. Overall the number of similarities between muscle and bone exceed the differences. Dietary protein and resistance exercise early in life can together promote the accumulation of lean mass and bone mineral, whereas novel therapies such as senolytic agents or NAD+ repletion may potentially prevent loss of muscle and bone with aging.

Keywords

Anabolism Catabolism Biology Muscle Bone Myocytes Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Osteocytes Hormones Growth factors Anabolic pathways Wnts Protein Fat Adipocytes Fat infiltration Marrow adipose tissue Intramuscular fat, aging Sarcopenia Osteoporosis Mechanical loading Muscle hypertrophy Bone formation 

Abbreviations

Akt

Protein kinase b

Birc3

Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 3

BMC

Bone mineral content

BMD

Bone mineral density

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

BMSCs

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell

Ccl5

C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5

CCR2

C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 2

COX

Cyclo-oxygenase

CXCR4

C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4

DAG

Diacylglycerol

DC-STAMP

Dendrocyte Expressed Seven Transmembrane Protein

DGK-z

Diacylglycerol Kinase Zeta

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FAM210A

Family with sequence similarity 210, member A

FAP

Fibro-adipogenic progenitor

FOXO

Forkhead Box O

GH

Growth hormone

Gpx

glutathione peroxidase

GWAS

Genome-wide association studies

Hox

Homeobox

Hsp90

Heat shock protein 90

IGF-1

Insulin like growth factor

IGFBP

nsulin like growth factor binding protein

IL

Interleukin

IMAT

intermuscular adipose tissue

Lmx1b

LIM Homeobox Transcription Factor 1 Beta

Lrp

LDL Receptor Related Protein

MAFbx

Muscle Atrophy F-Box Protein

MEF2C

Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2C

METTL21C

Methyltransferase-Like Protein 21C

MHC

Myosin heavy chain

MMP-12

Matrix metalloproteinase-12

MRF

Myogenic regulatory factor

MSCs

Mesenchymal stem cell

mTOR

Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Kinase

MuRF1

Muscle-Specific RING Finger Protein 1

Myf5

Myogenic factor 5

MyoD

Myogenic differentiation

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

NFATc2

Nuclear Factor Of Activated T Cells 2

NF-kB

Nuclear Factor Kappa B

Nkx3

NK3 Homeobox

NOX

NADPH Oxidase

Ob-Rb

Long isoform of leptin receptor

OPG

osteoprotegerin

p70S6K/ S6K1

Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase B1

Pax3/7

Paired box 3/7

PDGFR α/β

Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor α/β

PGF2α

Prostaglandin F2α

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

PPAR gamma

Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma

RANKL

Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand

RUNX2

Runt Related Transcription Factor 2

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SASP

Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype

Sca-1

Stem cell antigen 1

SDF-1

Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SOST

Sclerostin

SOD1

Superoxide dismutase

Sox9

SRY box 9

SREBF1

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 1

SSEA-4

Stage-specific embryonic antigen 4

STRO-1

Stromelysin-1

Tnf

Tumor necrosis factor

Wnt

Wingless

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding for this research was provided by the National Institute on Aging, US National Institutes of Health (AG 036675).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Medical College of GeorgiaAugusta UniversityAugustaUSA

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