Advertisement

Bridging Explosives and Fire Debris Analyses

  • Michelle Evans
Chapter

Abstract

Forensic laboratories occasionally receive cases that require both fire debris and explosive expertise to examine the evidence. Other times, cases do not fit neatly into either of these two categories, but fall somewhere in the middle. Examples of these include particular types of explosives, incendiary mixtures, and cases where investigators may not know if an explosion caused a fire or a fire caused an explosion. Potential approaches to analyzing the evidence, including data interpretation and reporting wording, are discussed.

References

  1. 1.
    Defense Intelligence Agency (2012) Homemade explosives. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASTM E1618-14 (2014)Standard test method for ignitable liquid residues in extracts from fire debris samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org
  3. 3.
    Reardon MR, Bender EC (2005) Differentiation of composition C-4 based on the analysis of the process oil. J Forensic Sci 50:564–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reardon MR, Allen L, Bender EC et al (2007) Comparison of motor oils using high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Forensic Sci 52:656–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hibbard R, Goodpaster JV, Evans MR (2011) Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils. J Forensic Sci 56:741–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brumley WC, Jones WJ, Grange AH (1995) A survey of potential applications of high-temperature capillary gas chromatography for environmental analysis. LC GC 13:228–236Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buyten J, Duvekot J, Peene J, Musschee Ph (1991) A capillary column for hightemperature gas chromatography. Am Lab 13:8Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roehner RM, Fletcher JV, Hanson FV (2002) Comparative compositional study of crude oil solids from the trans Alaska pipeline system using high-temperature gas chromatography. Energy Fuels 16:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chakraborty A, Bagchi S, Lahiri SC (2015) Studies of fire debris from bomb blasts using ion chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence measurements—evidence of ammonium nitrate, wax-based explosives and identification of a biomarker. Aus J Forensic Sci 47:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reardon MR, Proudfoot JE (2007) Oils and waxes in composition C-4 and emulsions: a comparison of intact samples to post-blast residues. In: Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on the analysis and detection of explosives, Paris, July 5, 2007Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beveridge A (ed) (2012) Forensic investigation of explosions. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Conkling JA, Mocella CJ (2011) Chemistry of pyrotechnics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arsenal Picatinny (1974) Encyclopedia of explosives and related items. Dover, MineolaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dean WL (1984) Examination of fire debris for flare (fusee) residues by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. In: Proceedings of the international association of forensic sciences, Oxford, 1984Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nesvold S, Pacholke K (2012) Detecting and confirming the presence of road flare residue in fire investigations. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on fire investigation science and technology. National Association of Fire Investigators, International, Sarasota, 2012Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stauffer E, Dolan JA, Newman R (2008) Fire debris analysis. Academic Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kirkbride KP, Kobus HJ (1991) The explosive reaction between swimming pool chlorine and brake fluid. J Forensic Sci 36(3):902–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martin-Alberca C, Ferrando JL, Garcia-Ruiz C (2013) Anionic markers for the forensic identification of chemical ignition Molotov Cocktail composition. Sci Jus 53:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hutches K, Lord J (2012) A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures. J Forensic Sci 57:1064–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Homemade chemical bomb events and resulting injuries—selected states, January 1996-March 2003. MMWR 52:662–664Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) Homemade chemical bomb incidents—15 states, 2003–2011. MMWR 62:498–500Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wade D (2013) Ignition devices for prescribed burning. http://southernfireexchange.org/SFE_Publications/factsheets/2013_3.pdf. Accessed 20 Mar 2018
  23. 23.
    SEI Industries (2017) Fire ignition sphere. http://www.sei-ind.com/products/fire-ignition-spheres. Accessed 20 Mar 2018
  24. 24.
    Beveridge AD, Greenlay WRA, Shaddick RC (1983) Identfication of reaction products in residues from explosives. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on the analysis and detection of explosives, Quantico, 29–31 Mar 1983Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nowicki J, Pauling S (1988) Identification of sugars in explosive residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Forensic Sci 33:1254–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McDonald K, Shaw M (2005) Identification of household chemicals used in small bombs via analysis of residual materials. Paper presented at the 57th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, New Orleans, Feb 2005Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and ExplosivesAmmendaleUSA

Personalised recommendations